Etymology and basic philosophyThe word "aikido" is formed of three kanji:
The term "Aiki (martial arts principle)|aiki" does not readily appear in the Japanese language outside the scope of Budo. This has led to many possible interpretations of the word. is mainly used in compounds to mean 'combine, unite, join together, meet', examples being (combined/united), (composition), (unite/combine/join together), (union/alliance/association), (combine/unify), and (mutual agreement). There is an idea of Norm of reciprocity|reciprocity, (to get to know one another), (talk/discussion/negotiation), and (meet by appointment).
is often used to describe a feeling, as in ('I feel X', as in terms of thinking but with less cognitive reasoning), and (feeling/sensation); it is used to mean energy or force, as in (electricity) and (magnetism); it can also refer to qualities or aspects of people or things, as in (spirit/trait/temperament).
The term is also found in martial arts such as judo and kendo, and in the more peaceful arts such as Japanese calligraphy (), ikebana|flower arranging () and Japanese tea ceremony|tea ceremony ().
Therefore, from a purely linguistic point of view, aikido is 'Way of combining forces'. The term refers to the martial arts principle or tactic of blending with an attacker's movements for the purpose of controlling their actions with minimal effort.* One applies by understanding the rhythm and intent of the attacker to find the optimal position and timing to apply a counter-technique. This then is very similar to the principles expressed by Kano Jigoro, founder of judo.
HistoryAikido was created by Morihei Ueshiba ( , 14 December 1883 – 26 April 1969), referred to by some aikido practitioners as ("Great Teacher").* Ueshiba envisioned aikido not only as the synthesis of his martial training, but as an expression of his personal philosophy of universal peace and reconciliation. During Ueshiba's lifetime and continuing today, aikido has evolved from the Aiki (martial arts principle)|Aiki that Ueshiba studied into a wide variety of expressions by martial artists throughout the world.*
Initial developmentUeshiba developed aikido primarily during the late 1920s through the 1930s through the synthesis of the older martial arts that he had studied.* The core martial art from which aikido derives is Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu|Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu, which Ueshiba studied directly with Takeda Sokaku, the reviver of that art. Additionally, Ueshiba is known to have studied Tenjin Shinyo Ryu|Tenjin Shin'yo-ryu with Tozawa Tokusaburo in Tokyo in 1901, Yagyu Shingan-ryu|Gotoha Yagyu Shingan-ryu under Nakai Masakatsu in Sakai, Osaka|Sakai from 1903 to 1908, and judo with Kiyoichi Takagi ( , 1894–1972) in Tanabe in 1911.*The art of Daito-ryu is the primary technical influence on aikido. Along with empty-handed throwing and joint-locking techniques, Ueshiba incorporated training movements with weapons, such as those for the spear (), short Stick fighting|staff (), and perhaps the . However, aikido derives much of its technical structure from the art of swordsmanship ().*
Ueshiba moved to Hokkaido in 1912, and began studying under Takeda Sokaku in 1915. His official association with Daito-ryu continued until 1937.* However, during the latter part of that period, Ueshiba had already begun to distance himself from Takeda and the Daito-ryu. At that time Ueshiba was referring to his martial art as "Aiki Budo". It is unclear exactly when Ueshiba began using the name "aikido", but it became the official name of the art in 1942 when the Greater Japan Martial Virtue Society () was engaged in a government sponsored reorganization and centralization of Japanese martial arts.*
Religious influencesAfter Ueshiba left Hokkaido in 1919, he met and was profoundly influenced by Onisaburo Deguchi, the spiritual leader of the Oomoto|Omoto-kyo religion (a neo-Shinto movement) in Ayabe.* One of the primary features of Omoto-kyo is its emphasis on the attainment of utopia during one's life. This was a great influence on Ueshiba's martial arts philosophy of extending love and compassion especially to those who seek to harm others. Aikido demonstrates this philosophy in its emphasis on mastering martial arts so that one may receive an attack and harmlessly redirect it. In an ideal resolution, not only is the receiver unharmed, but so is the attacker.*In addition to the effect on his spiritual growth, the connection with Deguchi gave Ueshiba entry to elite political and military circles as a martial artist. As a result of this exposure, he was able to attract not only financial backing but also gifted students. Several of these students would found their own styles of aikido.*
International disseminationAikido was first brought to the rest of the world in 1951 by Minoru Mochizuki with a visit to France where he introduced aikido techniques to judo students.* He was followed by Tadashi Abe in 1952 who came as the official Aikikai Hombu representative, remaining in France for seven years. Kenji Tomiki toured with a delegation of various martial arts through 15 continental states of the United States in 1953.* Later in that year, Koichi Tohei was sent by Aikikai Hombu to Hawaii, for a full year, where he set up several dojo. This was followed up by several further visits and is considered the formal introduction of aikido to the United States. The United Kingdom followed in 1955; Italy in 1964 by Hiroshi Tada; and Germany 1965 by Katsuaki Asai. Designated "Official Delegate for Europe and Africa" by Morihei Ueshiba, Masamichi Noro arrived in France in September 1961. Seiichi Sugano was appointed to introduce aikido to Australia in 1965. Today there are aikido dojo available throughout the world. Aikido was exhibited in Hollywood films by Steven Seagal in the 1990s.
Proliferation of independent organizationsThe largest aikido organization is the Aikikai Foundation which remains under the control of the Ueshiba family. However, aikido has many styles, mostly formed by Morihei Ueshiba's major students.*
The earliest independent styles to emerge were Yoseikan Aikido, begun by Minoru Mochizuki in 1931,* Yoshinkan Aikido founded by Gozo Shioda in 1955,* and Shodokan Aikido, founded by Kenji Tomiki in 1967.* The emergence of these styles pre-dated Ueshiba's death and did not cause any major upheavals when they were formalized. Shodokan Aikido, however, was controversial, since it introduced a unique rule-based competition that some felt was contrary to the spirit of aikido.*
After Ueshiba's death in 1969, two more major styles emerged. Significant controversy arose with the departure of the Aikikai Hombu Dojo's chief instructor Koichi Tohei, in 1974. Tohei left as a result of a disagreement with the son of the founder, Kisshomaru Ueshiba, who at that time headed the Aikikai Foundation. The disagreement was over the proper role of ki development in regular aikido training. After Tohei left, he formed his own style, called Shin Shin Toitsu Aikido, and the organization which governs it, the Ki Society (Ki no Kenkyukai).*A final major style evolved from Ueshiba's retirement in Iwama, Ibaraki, and the teaching methodology of long term student Morihiro Saito. It is unofficially referred to as the "Iwama style", and at one point a number of its followers formed a loose network of schools they called Iwama Ryu. Although Iwama style practitioners remained part of the Aikikai until Saito's death in 2002, followers of Saito subsequently split into two groups; one remaining with the Aikikai and the other forming the independent Shinshin Aikishuren Kai in 2004 around Saito's son Hitohiro Saito.
Today, the major styles of aikido are each run by a separate governing organization, have their own in Japan, and have an international breadth.*
TrainingIn aikido, as in virtually all Japanese martial arts, there are both physical and mental aspects of training. The physical training in aikido is diverse, covering both general physical fitness and Physical exercise|conditioning, as well as specific techniques.* Because a substantial portion of any aikido curriculum consists of throw (grappling)|throws, the first thing most students learn is how to safely fall or roll.* The specific techniques for attack include both strikes and grabs; the techniques for defense consist of throws and Pinning hold|pins. After basic techniques are learned, students study freestyle defense against multiple opponents, and techniques with weapons.
FitnessPhysical training goals pursued in conjunction with aikido include controlled relaxation technique|relaxation, flexibility (anatomy)|flexibility, and endurance, with less emphasis on strength training. In aikido, pushing or extending movements are much more common than pulling or contracting movements. This distinction can be applied to general fitness goals for the aikido practitioner.*
In aikido, specific muscles or muscle groups are not isolated and worked to improve tone, mass, and power. Aikido-related training emphasizes the use of coordinated whole-body movement and balance similar to yoga or pilates. For example, many dojos begin each class with , which may include stretching and Uke (martial arts)|ukemi (break falls).*
Roles of uke and nageAikido training is based primarily on two partners practicing pre-arranged forms (kata) rather than freestyle practice. The basic pattern is for the receiver of the technique (uke (martial arts)|uke) to initiate an attack against the person who applies the technique—the Tori (martial arts)|tori, or shite (depending on aikido style), also referred to as nage (when applying a throwing technique), who neutralises this attack with an aikido technique.*
Both halves of the technique, that of uke and that of nage, are considered essential to aikido training.* Both are studying aikido principles of blending and adaptation. Nage learns to blend with and control attacking energy, while uke learns to become calm and flexible in the disadvantageous, off-balance positions in which nage places them. This "receiving" of the technique is called ukemi.* Uke continuously seeks to regain balance and cover vulnerabilities (e.g., an exposed side), while nage uses position and timing to keep uke off-balance and vulnerable. In more advanced training, uke will sometimes apply to regain balance and pin or throw nage.
refers to the act of receiving a technique. Good ukemi involves attention to the technique, the partner and the immediate environment—it is an active rather than a passive receiving of aikido. The fall itself is part of aikido, and is a way for the practitioner to receive, safely, what would otherwise be a devastating strike or throw.
Initial attacksAikido techniques are usually a defense against an attack, so students must learn to deliver various types of attacks to be able to practice aikido with a partner. Although attacks are not studied as thoroughly as in striking-based arts, sincere attacks (a strong strike or an immobilizing grab) are needed to study correct and effective application of technique.*
Many of the of aikido resemble cuts from a sword or other grasped object, which indicates its origins in techniques intended for weapon|armed combat.* Other techniques, which explicitly appear to be punches (tsuki), are practiced as thrusts with a knife or sword. Kicks are generally reserved for upper-level variations; reasons cited include that falls from kicks are especially dangerous, and that kicks (highkicks in particular) were uncommon during the types of combat prevalent in feudal Japan. Some basic strikes include:
Beginners in particular often practice techniques from grabs, both because they are safer and because it is easier to feel the energy and lines of force of a hold than a strike. Some grabs are historically derived from being held while trying to draw a Katana|weapon; a technique could then be used to free oneself and immobilize or strike the attacker who is grabbing the defender.* The following are examples of some basic grabs:
Basic techniquesThe following are a sample of the basic or widely practiced throws and pins. Many of these techniques derive from Daito-ryu Aiki-jujutsu, but some others were invented by Morihei Ueshiba. The precise terminology for some may vary between organisations and styles, so what follows are the terms used by the Aikikai Foundation. Note that despite the names of the first five techniques listed, they are not universally taught in numeric order.*
ImplementationsAikido makes use of body movement (tai sabaki) to blend with uke. For example, an "entering" (irimi) technique consists of movements inward towards uke, while a technique uses a pivoting motion.* Additionally, an technique takes place in front of uke, whereas an technique takes place to his side; a technique is applied with motion to the front of uke, and a version is applied with motion towards the rear of uke, usually by incorporating a turning or pivoting motion. Finally, most techniques can be performed while in a seated posture (seiza). Techniques where both uke and nage are standing are called tachi-waza, techniques where both start off in seiza are called suwari-waza, and techniques performed with uke standing and nage sitting are called hanmi handachi.*
Thus, from fewer than twenty basic techniques, there are thousands of possible implementations. For instance, ikkyo can be applied to an opponent moving forward with a strike (perhaps with an ura type of movement to redirect the incoming force), or to an opponent who has already struck and is now moving back to reestablish distance (perhaps an omote-waza version). Specific aikido kata are typically referred to with the formula "attack-technique(-modifier)".* For instance, katate-dori ikkyo refers to any ikkyo technique executed when uke is holding one wrist. This could be further specified as katate-dori ikkyo omote, referring to any forward-moving ikkyo technique from that grab.
Atemi () are strikes (or feints) employed during an aikido technique. Some view atemi as attacks against "pressure point|vital points" meant to cause damage in and of themselves. For instance, Gozo Shioda|Gozo Shioda described using atemi in a brawl to quickly down a gang's leader.* Others consider atemi, especially to the face, to be methods of distraction meant to enable other techniques. A strike, whether or not it is blocked, can startle the target and break his or her concentration. The target may become unbalanced in attempting to avoid the blow, for example by jerking the head back, which may allow for an easier throw.* Many sayings about atemi are attributed to Morihei Ueshiba, who considered them an essential element of technique.*
WeaponsWeapons training in aikido traditionally includes the short staff (jo), wooden sword (bokken), and knife (tanto).* Today, some schools incorporate firearm-disarming techniques. Both weapon-taking and weapon-retention are sometimes taught, to integrate armed and unarmed aspects. Others, such as the Iwama style of Morihiro Saito, usually spend substantial time with bokken and jo, practised under the names aiki-ken, and aiki-jo, respectively.
The founder developed muchof empty handed aikido from traditional sword and spear movements. Consequently, the practice of these movements both gives insight into the origin of techniques and movements, and reinforces the concepts of distance, foot movement, presence and connectedness with one's training partner(s).*
Multiple attackers and randoriOne feature of aikido is training to defend against multiple attackers, often called taninzudori, or taninzugake. Freestyle (randori, or jiyuwaza) practice with multiple attackers is a key part of most curricula and is required for the higher level ranks.* "Randori", literally "chaos", exercises a person's ability to intuitively perform techniques in an unstructured environment.* Strategic choice of techniques, based on how they reposition the student relative to other attackers, is important in randori training. For instance, an ura technique might be used to neutralise the current attacker while turning to face attackers approaching from behind.*
In Shodokan Aikido, randori differs in that it is not performed with multiple persons with defined roles of defender and attacker, but between two people, where both participants attack, defend, and counter at will. In this respect it resembles judo randori.*
InjuriesIn applying a technique during training, it is the responsibility of nage to prevent injury to uke by employing a speed and force of application that is commensurate with their partner's proficiency in ukemi.* Injuries (especially those to the joints), when they do occur in aikido, are often the result of nage misjudging the ability of uke to receive the throw or pin.*A study of injuries in the martial arts showed that while the type of injuries varied considerably from one art to the other, the differences in overall rates of injury were much less pronounced. Soft tissue injuries are one of the most common types of injuries found within aikido, and a few deaths from repetitive "shihonage" in a Senpai and kohai|Japanese-style hazing context have been reported.*
Mental trainingAikido training is mental as well as physical, emphasizing the ability to relax the mind and body even under the stress of dangerous situations.* This is necessary to enable the practitioner to perform the bold enter-and-blend movements that underlie aikido techniques, wherein an attack is met with confidence and directness.* Morihei Ueshiba once remarked that one "must be willing to receive 99% of an opponent's attack and stare death in the face" in order to execute techniques without hesitation.* As a martial art concerned not only with fighting proficiency but with the betterment of daily life, this mental aspect is of key importance to aikido practitioners.*
CriticismsThe most common criticism of aikido is that it suffers from a lack of realism in training. The attacks initiated by uke (and which nage must defend against) have been criticized as being "weak," "sloppy," and "little more than caricatures of an attack."* Weak attacks from uke cause a conditioned response from nage, and result in underdevelopment of the strength and conditioning needed for the safe and effective practice of both partners.* To counteract this, some styles allow students to become less compliant over time but, in keeping with the core philosophies, this is after having demonstrated proficiency in being able to protect themselves and their training partners. Shodokan Aikido addresses the issue by practising in a competitive format.* Such adaptations are debated between styles, with some maintaining that there is no need to adjust their methods because either the criticisms are unjustified, or that they are not training for self-defence or combat effectiveness, but spiritual, fitness or other reasons.*Another criticism is that after the end of Ueshiba's seclusion in Iwama from 1942 to the mid-1950s, he increasingly emphasized the spiritual and philosophical aspects of aikido. As a result, strikes to vital points by nage, entering (irimi) and initiation of techniques by nage, the distinction between omote (front side) and ura (back side) techniques, and the use of weapons, were all de-emphasized or eliminated from practice. Lack of training in these areas is thought to lead to an overall loss of effectiveness by some aikido practitioners.*Conversely, there are some who criticize aikido practitioners for not placing enough importance on the spiritual practices emphasized by Ueshiba. The premise of this criticism is that "O-Sensei's aikido was not a continuation and extension of the old and has a distinct discontinuity with past martial and philosophical concepts."* That is, that aikido practitioners who focus on aikido's roots in traditional jujutsu or kenjutsu are diverging from what Ueshiba taught. Such critics urge practitioners to embrace the assertion that "[Ueshiba's] transcendence to the spiritual and universal reality was the fundamentals of the paradigm that he demonstrated."*
KiThe study of Qi|ki is a critical component of aikido, and its study defies categorization as either "physical" or "mental" training, as it encompasses both. The original kanji for ki was , and is a symbolic representation of a lid covering a pot full of rice; the "nourishing vapors" contained within are ki.*The character for ki is used in everyday Japanese terms, such as , or . Ki is most often understood as unified physical and mental intention, however in traditional martial arts it is often discussed as "life energy". Gozo Shioda's Yoshinkan|Yoshinkan Aikido, considered one of the "hard styles," largely follows Ueshiba's teachings from before World War II, and surmises that the secret to ki lies in timing and the application of the whole body's strength to a single point.* In later years, Ueshiba's application of ki in aikido took on a softer, more gentle feel. This was his Takemusu Aiki and many of his later students teach about ki from this perspective. Koichi Tohei's Ki Society centers almost exclusively around the study of the empirical (albeit subjective) experience of ki with students ranked separately in aikido techniques and ki development.*
Uniforms and rankingAikido practitioners (commonly called aikidoka outside of Japan) generally progress by promotion through a series of "grades" (kyu), followed by a series of "degrees" (dan (rank)|dan), pursuant to formal testing procedures. Some aikido organizations use belts to distinguish practitioners' grades, often simply white and Black belt (martial arts)|black belts to distinguish lower and higher grades, though some use various belt colors. Testing requirements vary, so a particular rank in one organization is not comparable or interchangeable with the rank of another.* Some dojos do not allow students to take the test to obtain a dan rank unless they are 16 or older.
The uniform worn for practicing aikido (aikidogi|aikidogi) is similar to the training uniform (keikogi) used in most other modern martial arts; simple trousers and a wraparound jacket, usually white. Both thick ("judo-style"), and thin ("karate-style") cotton tops are used.* Aikido-specific tops are available with shorter sleeves which reach to just below the elbow.
Most aikido systems add a pair of wide pleated black or indigo trousers called a hakama (used also in kendo and iaido.) In many schools, its use is reserved for practitioners with (dan) ranks or for instructors, while others allow all practitioners or female practitioners to wear a hakama regardless of rank.*