The term herbology is misleading in so far as plant elements are by far the most commonly, but not solely used substances; animal, human, and mineral products are also utilized. Thus, the term "medicinal" (instead of herb) is usually preferred as a translation for ? ().*
HistoryChinese herbs have been used for centuries. Among the earliest literature are lists of prescriptions for specific ailments, exemplified by the manuscript "Recipes for 52 Ailments", found in the Mawangdui tombs which were sealed in 168 BC.
The first traditionally recognized herbalist is Shennong|Shénnóng (?, lit. "Divine Farmer"), a mythical god-like figure, who is said to have lived around 2800 BC.* He allegedly tasted hundreds of herbs and imparted his knowledge of medicinal and poisonous plants to farmers. His Shennong Ben Cao Jing|Shénnóng Ben Cao Jing (?, Shennong's Materia Medica) is considered as the oldest book on Chinese herbal medicine. It classifies 365 species of roots, grass, woods, furs, animals and stones into three categories of herbal medicine: # The "superior" category, which includes herbs effective for multiple diseases and are mostly responsible for maintaining and restoring the body balance. They have almost no unfavorable side-effects. # A category comprising tonics and boosters, whose consumption must not be prolonged. # A category of substances which must usually be taken in small doses, and for the treatment of specific diseases only. The original text of Shennong's Materia Medica has been lost; however, there are extant translations.* The true date of origin is believed to fall into the late Western Han dynasty* (i.e., the first century BC).
The Shanghan lun|Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders and Miscellaneous Illnesses was collated by Zhang Zhongjing, also sometime at the end of the Han Dynasty|Han dynasty, between 196 and 220 CE. Focusing on drug prescriptions,* it was the first medical work to combine Yin and yang|Yinyang and the Wu Xing|Five Phases with drug therapy.* This Formulary (pharmacy)|formulary was also the earliest Chinese medical text to group symptoms into clinically useful "patterns" (zheng ?) that could serve as targets for therapy. Having gone through numerous changes over time, it now circulates as two distinct books: the Shang Han Lun|Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders and the Jingui Yaolue|Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Casket, which were edited separately in the eleventh century, under the Song Dynasty|Song dynasty.*Succeeding generations augmented these works, as in the Yaoxing Lun (simplified Chinese: ?; traditional Chinese: ?; literally "Treatise on the Nature of Medicinal Herbs"), a 7th-century Tang Dynasty Chinese treatise on herbal medicine.
Arguably the most important of these later works is the Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao Gangmu) compiled during the Ming dynasty by Li Shizhen, which is still used today for consultation and reference.
Raw materialsThere are roughly 13,000 medicinals used in China and over 100,000 medicinal recipes recorded in the ancient literature.* Plant elements and extracts are by far the most common elements used.* In the classic Handbook of Traditional Drugs from 1941, 517 drugs were listed - out of these, only 45 were animal parts, and 30 were minerals.* For many plants used as medicinals, detailed instructions have been handed down not only regarding the locations and areas where they grow best, but also regarding the best timing of planting and harvesting them.*Some animal parts used as medicinals can be considered rather strange such as cows' gallstones.*Traditional Chinese Medicine also includes some human parts: the classic Materia medica (Bencao Gangmu) describes the use of 35 human body parts and excreta in medicines, including bones, fingernail, hairs, dandruff, earwax, impurities on the teeth, feces, urine, sweat, and organs, but most are no longer in use.*
PreparationEach herbal medicine prescription is a cocktail of many substances, usually tailored to the individual patient.
DecoctionTypically, one batch of medicinals is prepared as a decoction of about 9 to 18 substances.* Some of these are considered as main herbs, some as ancillary herbs; within the ancillary herbs, up to three categories can be distinguished.* Some ingredients are added in order to cancel out toxicity or side-effects of the main ingredients; on top of that, some medicinals require the use of other substances as catalysts.
Chinese Patent MedicineChinese patent medicine (traditional Chinese: ?, Simplified Chinese: ?, pinyin: zhongchéng yào) is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. They are standardized Herbalism|herbal formulas. From ancient times, pills were formed by combining several herbs and other ingredients, which were dried and ground into a powder. They were then mixed with a binder and formed into pills by hand. The Binder (material)|binder was traditionally honey. Modern teapills, however, are extracted in stainless steel extractors to create either a water decoction or water-alcohol decoction, depending on the herbs used. They are extracted at a low temperature (below 100 degrees Celsius) to preserve essential ingredients. The extracted liquid is then further condensed, and some raw herb powder from one of the herbal ingredients is mixed in to form an herbal dough. This dough is then machine cut into tiny pieces, a small amount of excipients are added for a smooth and consistent exterior, and they are spun into pills. Teapills are characteristically little round black pills.
Chinese patent medicines are easy and convenient. They are not easy to customize on a patient-by-patient basis, however. They are often used when a patient's condition is not severe and the medicine can be taken as a long-term treatment.
These medicines are not patented in the traditional sense of the word. No one has exclusive rights to the formula. Instead, "patent" refers to the standardization of the formula. In China, all Chinese patent medicines of the same name will have the same proportions of ingredients, and manufactured in accordance with the PRC Pharmacopoeia, which is mandated by law. However, in western countries there may be variations in the proportions of ingredients in patent medicines of the same name, and even different ingredients altogether.
Several producers of Chinese herbal medicines are pursuing FDA clinical trials to market their products as drugs in U.S. and European markets.*
Chinese Herbal ExtractsChinese herbal extracts are herbal decoctions that have been condensed into a granular or powdered form. Herbal extracts, similar to patent medicines, are easier and more convenient for patients to take. The industry extraction standard is 5:1, meaning for every five pounds of raw materials, one pound of herbal extract is derived.*
CategorizationThere are several different methods to classify traditional Chinese medicinals:
Four NaturesThe Four Natures are: hot(?), warm(?), cool(?), cold(?) or neutral(?), in terms of temperature).* Hot and warm herbs are used to treat Traditional Chinese medicine#Basic principles of pattern discrimination|cold diseases, while cool and cold herbs are used to treat Traditional Chinese medicine#Basic principles of pattern discrimination|heat diseases.*
Five FlavorsThe Five Flavors, sometimes also translated as Five Tastes, are: acrid/pungent(?), sweet(?), bitter(?), sour(?), and salty(?).* Substances may also have more than one flavor, or none (i.e., a bland(?) flavor).* Each of the Five Flavors corresponds to one of the Traditional Chinese medicine#Zang-fu|zàng organs, which in turn corresponds to one of the Traditional Chinese medicine#Five Phases theory|Five Phases:* A flavor implies certain properties and therapeutic actions of a substance: saltiness "drains downward and softens hard masses";* sweetness is "supplementing, harmonizing, and moistening";* pungent substances are thought to induce sweat and act on Traditional Chinese medicine#Qi|qi and Traditional Chinese medicine#Xue|blood; sourness tends to be astringent(?) in nature; bitterness "drains Traditional Chinese medicine#Six Excesses|heat, purges the bowels, and eliminates Traditional Chinese medicine#Six Excesses|dampness".
MeridiansThis classification refers not just to the Meridian (Chinese medicine)|meridian, but also to the meridian-associated zàng-organ, which can be expected to be primarily affected by a given medicinal (there are 12 standard meridians in the body a medicinal can act upon). For example, traditional beliefs hold that menthol is pungent and cool and goes to the Lung (Chinese medicine)|Lung and the Liver (Chinese medicine)|Liver channels. The Traditional Chinese concept of the Lungs includes the function of protecting the body from colds, and menthol is thought to cool the Lungs and purge heat toxins caused by Traditional Chinese medicine#Six Excesses|wind-heat invasion (one of the Traditional Chinese medicine#Patterns|patterns of common cold).
Specific functionThese categories mainly include:
NomenclatureMany herbs earn their names from their unique physical appearance. Examples of such names include Niu Xi (Radix Cyathulae seu Achyranthis), "cow's knees," which has big joints that might look like cow knees; Bai Mu Er (Fructificatio Tremellae Fuciformis), white wood ear,' which is white and resembles an ear; Gou Ji (Rhizoma Cibotii), 'dog spine,' which resembles the spine of a dog.*
ColorColor is not only a valuable means of identifying herbs, but in many cases also provides information about the therapeutic attributes of the herb. For example, yellow herbs are referred to as 'huang' (yellow) or 'jin' (gold). Huang Bai (Cortex Phellodendri) means 'yellow fir," and Jin Yin Hua (Flos Lonicerae) has the label 'golden silver flower."*
Smell and TasteUnique flavors define specific names for some substances. "Gan" means 'sweet,' so Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) is 'sweet herb," an adequate description for the licorice root. "Ku" means bitter, thus Ku Shen (Sophorae Flavescentis) translates as 'bitter herb.'*
Geographic LocationThe locations or provinces in which herbs are grown often figure into herb names. For example Bei Sha Shen (Radix Glehniae) is grown and harvested in northern China, whereas Nan Sha Shen (Radix Adenophorae) originated in southern China. And the Chinese words for north and south are respectively "bei" and "nan."*
Chuan Bei Mu (Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae) and Chuan Niu Xi (Radix Cyathulae) are both found in Sichuan province, as the character "chuan" indicates in their names.*
FunctionSome herbs, like Fang Feng (Radix Saposhnikoviae), literally 'prevent wind," prevents or treats wind-related illnesses. Xu Duan (Radix Dipsaci), literally 'restore the broken,' effectively treats torn soft tissues and broken bones.*
Country of OriginMany herbs indigenous to other countries have been incorporated into the Chinese materia medica. Xi Yang Shen (Radix Panacis Quinquefolii), imported from North American crops, translates as 'western ginseng," while Dong Yang Shen (Radix Ginseng Japonica), grown in and imported from North Asian countries, is 'eastern ginseng.' Similar examples are noted in the text whenever geography matters in herb selection.*
ToxicityFrom the earliest records regarding the use of medicinals to today, the toxicity of certain substances has been described in all Chinese materia medica|materiae medicae.* The toxicity in some cases could be confirmed by modern research (i.e., in scorpion); in some cases it couldn't (i.e., in curculigo).*Substances known to be potentially dangerous include aconitine|aconite,* secretions from the Asiatic toad,* powdered centipede,* the Chinese beetle (Mylabris phalerata, Ban mao),* and certain fungi.* Further, ingredients may have different names in different locales or in historical texts, and different preparations may have similar names for the same reason, which can create inconsistencies and confusion in the creation of medicinals,* with the possible danger of poisoning.*
EfficacyRegarding Traditional Chinese herbal therapy, only few trials exist that are considered to be of adequate methodology by modern western medical researchers, and its effectiveness therefore is considered poorly documented.* For example, a 2007 Cochrane review found promising evidence for the use of Chinese herbal medicine in relieving dysmenorrhea|painful menstruation, compared to conventional medicine such as NSAIDs and the oral contraceptive pill, but the findings have to be interpreted with caution due to the generally low methodological quality of the included studies (as, amongst others, data for Placebo-controlled study| placebo control could not be obtained).*
Ecological impactsThe traditional practice of using (by now) endangered species is controversial within TCM. Modern Materia Medicas such as Bensky, Clavey and Stoger's comprehensive Chinese herbal text discuss substances derived from endangered species in an appendix, emphasizing alternatives.*Parts of endangered species used as TCM drugs include tiger bones* and rhinoceros horn.* Poachers supply the black market with such substances,* and the black market in rhinoceros horn, for example, has reduced the world's rhino population by more than 90 percent over the past 40 years.* Concerns have also arisen over the use of turtle plastron* and seahorses.*TCM recognizes bear bile as a medicinal.* In 1988, the Chinese Ministry of Health started controlling bile production, which previously used bears killed before winter. Now bears are fitted with a sort of permanent catheter, which is more profitable than killing the bears.* More than 12,000 asiatic black bears are held in "bear farms", where they suffer cruel conditions while being held in tiny cages.* The catheter leads through a permanent hole in the abdomen directly to the gall bladder, which can cause severe pain. Increased international attention has mostly stopped the use of bile outside of China; gallbladders from butchered cattle (niú dan / ? / ?) are recommended as a substitute for this ingredient.
Herbs in useThere are over three hundred herbs that are commonly being used today. Some of the most commonly used herbs are Ginseng (?, ?, rénshen), wolfberry (wikt:?|?), Dong Quai (Angelica sinensis, ?, ?, danggui), astragalus (?, ?, huángqí), atractylodes (?, ?, báizhú), bupleurum (?, cháihú), cinnamon (cinnamon twigs (?, guìzhi) and cinnamon bark (?, ròuguì)), coptis (?, ?, huánglián), ginger (?, ?, jiang), hoelen (?, fúlíng), licorice (?, gancao), ephedra sinica (?, ?, máhuáng), peony (white: ?, báisháo and reddish: ?, chìsháo), rehmannia (?, ?, dìhuáng), rhubarb (?, ?, dàhuáng), and salvia (?, ?, danshen).
GinsengThe use of ginseng (?) is well over two thousand years old in Chinese medicine. Ginseng contains ginsenosides. The amount of ginsenosides in ginseng depends on how the plant was cultivated and the age of the root. Wild ginseng is rare and commands the highest prices on the market. Red Panax ginseng is the most popular form of ginseng and it is usually packaged as a liquid or tea. Ginseng comes in two kinds, red and white. The color of the ginseng depends on how it is processed. White ginseng is unprocessed and dries naturally. Red ginseng is processed with steam and is believed to be more effective. Native Americans have used American ginseng for dry coughs, constipation, and fevers.
TCM Information: Species: Panax ginseng. Pinyin: Ren Shen. Common Name: Chinese Ginseng. Quality: Sweet, Bitter, Warm. Meridians: Lung, Spleen, Heart. Actions: Tonifies yuan qi to treat collapse of qi, tonifies spleen and lung, generates fluids, mildly tonifies heart qi.*Species: Elutherococcus senticosus. Pinyin: Ci Wu Jia. Common Name: Siberian Ginseng. Quality: Pungent (Acrid), Slightly bitter, Warm. Meridians: Spleen, Heart, Kidney. Actions: Tonifies spleen and kidney, mildly tonifies heart qi, promote blood circulation, calms shen.*Species: Panax quinquefolius. Pinyin: Xi Yang Shen. Common Name: American Ginseng. Quality: Sweet, Slightly bitter, Cold. Meridians: Heart, Kidney, Lung. Actions: Tonifies lung and spleen qi, tonifies lung yin, cools fire from lung yin deficiency, generates fluids.*
MushroomsMushrooms have long been used as a medicinal food and as a tea in Chinese herbology. Clinical, animal, and cellular research has shown some mushrooms may be able to up-regulate aspects of the immune system.* Notable mushrooms used in Chinese herbology include Reishi and Shiitake.
WolfberryWolfberry (wikt:?|?) is grown in the Far East and is grown from shrubs with long vines. The shrubs are covered with small trumpet-shaped flowers, which turn into small, bright red berries. The berries are usually fresh and sometimes used when dried.
TCM Information: Species: Lycium barbarum. Pinyin: Gou Qi Zi. Common Name: Chinese Wolfberry. Quality: Sweet, Neutral. Meridians: Liver, Lung, Kidney. Actions: Tonifies kidney and lung yin, tonifies liver blood, tonifies jing, improves vision.*
Dang GuiDang Gui (?, Angelica sinensis or "female ginseng") is an aromatic herb that grows in China, Korea, and Japan.
TCM Information: Species: Angelica sinensis. Pinyin: Dang Gui. Common Name: Chinese Angelica Root. Quality: Sweet, Pungent(Acrid), Warm. Meridians: Liver, Heart, Spleen. Actions: Tonify blood, invigorate blood, regulate menstruation, relieve pain, unblock bowels by moistening intestine.*
AstragalusAstragalus (?) is a root used for immune deficiencies and allergies.
TCM Information: Species: Astragalus membranaceus. Pinyin: Huang Qi. Common Name: Astragalus Root, Milkvetch Root. Quality: Sweet, Slightly warm. Meridians: Lung, Spleen. Actions: Raise yang qi to treat prolapse, tonify spleen and lung qi, tonify wei qi, increases urination, promotes drainage of pus, generates flesh.*
AtractylodesAtractylodes (?) is believed to be important in the treatment of digestive disorders and problems of moisture accumulation.
TCM Information: Species: Atractylodes lancea. Pinyin: Cang Zhu. Common Name: Atractylodes Rhizome. Quality: Pungent(Acrid), Bitter, Warm. Meridians: Spleen, Stomach. Actions: Strong to dry dampness, strengthens the spleen, induce sweating, expel wind-cold, clears damp-heat from lower jiao, improves vision.*
BupleurumBupleurum (?) is believed to be useful for
the treatment of liver diseases, skin ailments, arthritis, menopausal syndrome, withdrawal from corticosteroid use, nephritis, stress-induced ulcers, and mental disorders.
TCM Information: Species: Bupleurnum chinense. Pinyin: Chai Hu. Common Name: Hare's Ear Root. Quality: Bitter, Pungent(Acrid), Cool. Meridians: Gallbladder, Liver, Pericardium, San Jiao. Actions: Treats alternating chills and fever, clears lesser yang disorders, relieves liver qi stagnation, raises yang qi to treat prolapse, treats certain menstrual disorders.*
CinnamonCinnamon (?, ?), mostly gui zhi and rou gui, are twigs and bark from large tropical trees.
Studies show that cinnamon reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes, and the findings suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.* TCM Information: Species: Cinnamomum cassia. Pinyin: Gui Zhi. Common Name: Cinnamon Twig. Quality: Pungent (Acrid), Sweet, Warm. Meridians: Heart, Lung, Bladder. Actions: Induce sweating, warms and unblocks channels, unblocks yang qi of the chest, treats dysmenorrhea.* Species: Cinnamomum cassia. Pinyin: Rou Gui. Common Name: Cinnamon Bark. Quality: Pungent (Acrid), Sweet, Hot. Meridians: Heart, Kidney, Liver, Spleen. Actions: Tonifies kidney yang, leads fire back to its source, disperses cold, encourages generation of qi and blood, promotes blood circulation, alleviates pain due to cold, dysmenorrhea.*
Coptis chinensisCoptis chinensis (?) is a rhizome that is one of the bitterest herbs used in Chinese medicine.
TCM Information: Species: Coptis chinensis. Pinyin: Huang Lian. Common Name: Coptis Rhizome. Qualities: Bitter, Cold. Meridians: Heart, Large Intestine, Liver, Stomach. Actions: Clears heat and drains damp, drains fire(especially from heart and stomach), eliminates toxicity.*
GingerGinger (?, ?) is a herb and a spice that is used in Chinese cuisine. There are four main kinds of preparations in Chinese herbology: fresh ginger, dried ginger, roasted ginger, and ginger charcoal, all made of the rhizomes.
TCM Information: :Species: Zingiber officinalis. :Pinyin: Sheng Jiang (?, ?). :Common Name: Fresh Ginger Rhizome. :Quality: Pungent(Acrid), Slightly warm. :Meridians: Lung, Spleen, Stomach. :Actions: Release the exterior, expel cold, warm the middle jiao, relieve nausea, transform phlegm, warm lung to stop coughing, treat toxicity, and moderate the toxicity of other herbs.* :Species: Zingiber officinalis. :Pinyin: Gan Jiang (?, ?). :Common Name: Dried Ginger Rhizome. :Quality: Pungent(Acrid), Hot. :Meridians: Heart, Lung, Spleen, Stomach. :Actions: Warms the spleen and stomach, restores devastated yang, warms the lung to transform thin mucus, warms and unblocks channels.*
LicoriceThe use of the licorice plant (?) Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is thought to help treat hepatitis, sore throat, and muscle spasms.
TCM Information: :Species: Glycyrrhiza inflata or Glycyrrhiza glabra. :Pinyin: Gan Cao. :Common Name: Licorice Root. :Quality: Sweet, Neutral. :Meridians: All 12 channels, but mainly Heart, Lung, Spleen, Stomach. :Actions: Tonify spleen qi, moisten lung for dry cough, clears heat and fire toxicity, tonifies heart qi to regulate pulse, alleviates spasmodic pain, antidote for toxicity, moderates the effects of harsh herbs.*
TCM Information: Species: Ephedra sinica or Ephedra intermedia. Pinyin: Ma Huang. Common Name: Ephedra Stem. Quality: Pungent(Acrid), Slightly Bitter, Warm. Meridians: Lung, Bladder. Actions: Induce sweating and release exterior for wind-cold invasion with no sweating, promotes urination, move lung qi for wheezing, cough or asthma.*
PeonyPeony (?, ?) comes in two varieties: bai shao(white) and chi shao (red), the root of the plant is used in both varieties.
TCM Information: Species: Paeonia lactiflora. Pinyin: Bai Shao. Common Name: White Peony Root. Quality: Bitter, Sour, Cool. Meridians: Liver, Spleen. Actions: Tonify liver blood, calms liver yang, alleviates flank/abdominal pain from liver qi stagnation or liver and spleen disharmony, preserves yin and adjusts nutritive and protective levels, regulates menses for blood deficiency problem.*
Species: Paeonia lactiflora or Paeonia veitchii. Pinyin: Chi Shao. Common Name: Red Peony Root. Quality: Sour, Bitter, Cool. Meridians: Liver, Spleen. Actions: Clears heat, cools blood, invigorates blood and dispel stasis to treat irregular menses, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhea, abdominal pain, and fixed abdominal masses.*
RehmanniaRehmannia (?) is a root where the dark, moist part of the herb is used.
TCM Information: Species: Rehmannia glucinosa. Pinyin: Sheng Di Huang. Common Name: Chinese Foxglove Root. Qualities: Sweet, Bitter, Cold. Meridians: Heart, Kidney, Liver. Actions: Clears heat, cools blood, nourishes yin, generates fluids, treats wasting and thirsting disorder.*Species: Rehmannia glucinosa. Pinyin: Shu Di Huang. Common Name: Chinese Foxglove Root Prepared with Wine. Qualities: Sweet, Slightly warm. Meridians: Heart, Kidney, Liver. Actions: Tonifies blood, tonifies liver and kidney yin, treats wasting and thirsting disorder, nourishes jing.*
RhubarbRhubarb (?) is a large root and was once one of the first herbs that was imported from China.
TCM Information: Species: Rheum palmatum, Rheum ranguticum, or Rheum officinale. Pinyin: Da Huang. Common Name: Rhubarb Root and Rhizome. Quality: Bitter, Cold. Meridians: Heart, Large Intestine, Liver, Stomach. Actions: Purge accumulation, cool blood, invigorate blood, drain damp-heat.*
SalviaSalvia (?) are the deep roots of the Chinese sage plant.
TCM Information: Species: Salvia miltiorrhiza. Pinyin: Dan Shen. Common Name: Salvia Root. Qualities: Bitter, Cool. Meridians: Heart, Pericardium, Liver. Actions: Invigorate blood, tonify blood, regulate menstruation, clear heat and soothe irritability.*