The philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for other modern Japanese martial arts that developed from . The worldwide spread of judo has led to the development of a number of offshoots such as Sambo (martial art)|Sambo and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Judo practitioners are called judoka.
History and philosophy
Early life of the founderThe early history of judo is inseparable from its founder, Japanese people|Japanese polymath and educator , born . Kano was born into a relatively affluent family. His father, Jirosaku, was the second son of the head priest of the Shinto Hiyoshi Shrine|Hiyoshi shrine in Shiga Prefecture. He married Sadako Kano, daughter of the owner of Kiku-Masamune sake brewing company and was adopted by the family, changing his name to Kano, and ultimately became an official in the Bakufu#Shogunate|Bakufu government.*Jigoro Kano had an academic upbringing and, from the age of seven, he studied English, and the under a number of tutors.* When he was fourteen, Kano began boarding at an English-medium school, Ikuei-Gijuku in Shiba, Tokyo. The culture of bullying endemic at this school was the catalyst that caused Kano to seek out a at which to train.*
Early attempts to find a jujutsu teacher who was willing to take him on met with little success. With the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate in the Meiji Restoration of 1868, jujutsu had become unfashionable in an increasingly westernised Japan. Many of those who had once taught the art had been forced out of teaching or become so disillusioned with it that they had simply given up. Nakai Umenari, an acquaintance of Kano's father and a former soldier, agreed to show him kata, but not to teach him. The caretaker of his father's second house, Katagiri Ryuji, also knew jujutsu, but would not teach it as he believed it was no longer of practical use. Another frequent visitor to Kano's father's house, Imai Genshiro of school of jujutsu, also refused.* Several years passed before he finally found a willing teacher.*
In 1877, as a student at the Tokyo-Kaisei school (soon to become part of the newly founded University of Tokyo|Tokyo Imperial University), Kano learned that many jujutsu teachers had been forced to pursue alternative careers, frequently opening .* After inquiring at a number of these, Kano was referred to Fukuda Hachinosuke (c.1828–1880),* a teacher of the of jujutsu, who had a small nine mat dojo where he taught five students.* Fukuda is said to have emphasized technique over formal exercise, sowing the seeds of Kano's emphasis on in judo.
On Fukuda's death in 1880, Kano, who had become his keenest and most able student in both randori and , was given the of the Fukuda dojo.* Kano chose to continue his studies at another Tenjin Shin'yo-ryu school, that of Iso Masatomo (c.1820–1881). Iso placed more emphasis on the practice of kata, and entrusted randori instruction to assistants, increasingly to Kano.* Iso died in June 1881 and Kano went on to study at the dojo of Iikubo Tsunetoshi (1835–1889) of .* Like Fukuda, Iikubo placed much emphasis on randori, with Kito-ryu having a greater focus on .*
Founding of the KodokanIn February 1882, Kano founded a school and dojo at the , a buddhism|Buddhist temple in what was then the Shitaya ward of Tokyo (now the Higashi Ueno district of Taito, Tokyo|Taito ward).* Iikubo, Kano's Kito-ryu instructor, attended the dojo three days a week to help teach and, although two years would pass before the temple would be called by the name , and Kano had not yet received his in Kito-ryu, this is now regarded as the Kodokan founding.
The Eisho-ji dojo was a relatively small affair, consisting of a twelve mat training area. Kano took in resident and non-resident students, the first two being Tsunejiro Tomita and Shiro Saigo.* In August, the following year, the pair were granted grades, the first that had been awarded in any martial art.*
Judo versus JujutsuCentral to Kano's vision for judo were the principles of and . He illustrated the application of seiryoku zen'yo with the concept of :
Kano realised that seiryoku zen'yo, initially conceived as a Jujutsu concept, had a wider philosophical application. Coupled with the Confucianism|Confucianist-influenced jita kyoei, the wider application shaped the development of judo from a to a . Kano rejected techniques that did not conform to these principles and emphasised the importance of efficiency in the execution of techniques. He was convinced that practice of Jujutsu while conforming to these ideals was a route to self-improvement and the betterment of society in general.* He was, however, acutely conscious of the Japanese public's negative perception of Jujutsu:
Kano believed that "Jujutsu" was insufficient to describe his art: although means "art" or "means", it implies a method consisting of a collection of physical techniques. Accordingly, he changed the second character to , meaning way, road or path, which implies a more philosophical context than jutsu and has a common origin with the Chinese concept of tao. Thus Kano renamed it .*
Judo waza (techniques)There are three basic categories of in judo: , and .* Judo is most known for nage-waza and katame-waza.*Judo practitioners typically devote a portion of each practice session to , in order that nage-waza can be practiced without significant risk of injury. Several distinct types of ukemi exist, including ; ; ; and *The person who performs a Waza is known as and the person to whom it is performed is known as .*
Nage waza (throwing techniques)Nage waza include all techniques in which tori attempts to throw or trip uke, usually with the aim of placing uke on his back. Each technique has three distinct stages:
Nage waza are typically drilled by the use of , repeated turning-in, taking the throw up to the point of kake.*Traditionally, nage waza are further categorised into , throws that are performed with tori maintaining an upright position, and , throws in which tori sacrifices his upright position in order to throw uke.*Tachi-waza are further subdivided into , in which tori predominantly uses his arms to throw uke; throws that predominantly use a lifting motion from the hips; and , throws in which tori predominantly utilises his legs.*
Katame-waza (grappling techniques)Katame-waza is further categorised into , in which tori traps and pins uke on his back on the floor; , in which tori attempts to force a submission by choking or strangling uke; and , in which tori attempts to submit uke by painful manipulation of his joints.*A related concept is that of , in which waza are applied from a non-standing position.*In competitive judo, Kansetsu-waza is currently limited to elbow joint manipulation.* Manipulation and locking of other joints can be found in various kata, such as Katame-no-kata and Kodokan goshin jutsu.*
Atemi-waza (striking techniques)Atemi-waza are techniques in which tori disables uke with a strike to a vital point. Atemi-waza are not permitted outside of kata.*
Randori (free practice)Judo pedagogy emphasizes . This term covers a variety of forms of practice, and the intensity at which it is carried out varies depending on intent and the level of expertise of the participants. At one extreme, is a compliant style of randori, known as , in which neither participant offers resistance to their partner's attempts to throw. A related concept is that of , in which an experienced judoka allows himself to be thrown by his less-experienced partner.* At the opposite extreme from yakusoku geiko is the hard style of randori that seeks to emulate the style of judo seen in competition. While hard randori is the cornerstone of judo, over-emphasis of the competitive aspect is seen as undesirable by traditionalists if the intent of the randori is to "win" rather than to learn.*Randori is usually limited to either tachi waza (standing techniques) or ne waza (ground work) and, when one partner is thrown in tachi waza randori, practice is resumed with both partners on their feet.
Kata (forms)are pre-arranged patterns of techniques and in judo, with the exception of the Seiryoku Zen'yo Kokumin Taiiku no Kata|Seiryoku-Zen'yo Kokumin-Taiiku, they are all practised with a partner. Their purposes include illustrating the basic principles of judo, demonstrating the correct execution of a technique, teaching the philosophical tenets upon which judo is based, allowing for the practice of techniques that are not allowed in randori, and to preserve ancient techniques that are historically important but are no longer used in contemporary judo.
There are ten kata that are recognized by the Kodokan today:*
History of competitive judois a vitally important aspect of judo. Early examples include the Kodokan and the biannual , both of which started in 1884 and continue to the present day.
In 1899, Kano was asked to chair a committee of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai to draw up the first formal set of contest rules for jujutsu. These rules were intended to cover contests between different various traditional schools of jujutsu as well as practitioners of Kodokan judo. Contests were 15 minutes long and were judged on the basis of nage waza and katame waza, excluding atemi waza. Wins were by two ippons, awarded for throwing that were the opponent's back strikes flat onto the mat or by pinning them on their back for a "sufficient" amount of time or by submission. Submissions could be achieved via shime-waza or kansetsu-waza. Finger, toe and ankle locks were prohibited.* In 1900, these rules were adopted by the Kodokan with amendments made to prohibit all joint locks for kyu grades and added wrist locks to the prohibited kansetsu-waza for dan grades. It was also stated that the ratio of tachi-waza to ne-waza should be between 70% to 80% for kyu grades and 60% to 70% for dan grades.*
In 1916, additional rulings were brought in to further limit kansetsu waza with the prohibition of ashi garami and neck locks, as well as do jime.* These were further added to in 1925, in response to , which concentrated on ne waza at the expense of tachi waza. The new rules banned all remaining joint locks except those applied to the elbow and prohibited the dragging down of an opponent to enter ne waza.
The were first held in 1930 and have been held every year, with the exception of the wartime period between 1941 and 1948, and continue to be the highest profile tournament in Japan.
Judo's international profile was boosted by the introduction of the World Judo Championships in 1956. The championships were initially a fairly small affair, with 31 athletes attending from 21 countries in the first year. Competitors were exclusively male until the introduction of the Women's Championships in 1980, which took place on alternate years to the Men's Championships. The championships were combined in 1987 to create an event that takes place annually, except for the years in which Olympic games are held. Participation has steadily increased such that, in the most recent championships in 2011, 871 competitors from 132 countries took part.
The first time judo was seen in the Olympic Games was in an informal demonstration hosted by Kano at the 1932 Summer Olympics|1932 Games.* However, Kano was ambivalent about judo's potential inclusion as an Olympic sport: Nevertheless, judo became an Olympic Games|Olympic sport for men in the 1964 Summer Olympics|1964 Games in Tokyo. The Olympic Committee initially dropped judo for the 1968 Olympics, meeting protests.* Dutchman Anton Geesink won the first Olympic gold medal in the open division of judo by defeating Akio Kaminaga of Japan. The women's event was introduced at the Olympics in 1988 as a demonstration event, and an official medal event in 1992. Paralympic judo has been a Paralympic Games|Paralympic sport (for the visually impaired) since 1988; it is also one of the sports at the Special Olympics World Games|Special Olympics.
Current international contest rulesThe traditional rules of judo are intended to provide a basis under which to test skill in judo, while avoiding significant risk of injury to the competitors. Additionally, the rules are also intended to enforce proper .
Penalties may be given for: passivity or preventing progress in the match; for safety infringements for example by using prohibited techniques, or for behavior that is deemed to be against the spirit of judo. Fighting must be stopped if a participant is outside the designated area on the mat.
Weight divisionsThere are currently seven weight divisions, subject to change by governing bodies, and may be modified based on the age of the competitors:
Competition scoringA throw that places the opponent on his back with impetus and control scores an , winning the contest.* A lesser throw, where the opponent is thrown onto his back, but with insufficient force to merit an ippon, scores a .* Two scores of waza-ari equal an ippon.* A throw that places the opponent onto his side scores a .* No amount of yukos equal a waza-ari, they are only considered in the event of an otherwise tied contest.*
Ippon is scored in ne-waza for pinning an opponent on his back with a recognised osaekomi-waza for 20 seconds or by forcing a submission through shime-waza or kansetsu-waza.* A submission is signalled by tapping the mat or the opponent at least twice with the hand or foot, or by saying .* A pin lasting for less than 20 seconds, but more than 15 seconds scores waza-ari and one lasting less than 15 seconds but more than 10 seconds scores a yuko.*
Formerly, there was an additional score that was lesser to yuko, that of . This has since been removed.
If the scores are identical at the end of the match, the contest is resolved by the Golden Score rule. Golden Score is a sudden death (sport)|sudden death situation where the clock is reset to match-time, and the first contestant to achieve any score wins. If there is no score during this period, then the winner is decided by , the majority opinion of the referee and the two corner judges.
PenaltiesMinor rules infractions are penalised with a . This is treated as a warning and a single shido makes no contribution to the overall score. A second shido awards the penalised competitor's opponent the score of a yuko and a third shido is equivalent to a waza-ari. A serious rules violation yields a , resulting in disqualification of the penalised competitor. Hansoku make is also imposed for the accumulation of four shidos.
Formerly, there were two additional levels of penalty between shido and hansoku make: , equivalent to a yuko and equivalent to waza-ari.
Representation of scoresJudo scoreboards show the number of waza-ari and yuko scores scored by each player. (A score of koka was also displayed until its use was abandoned in 2009.) Often an ippon is not represented on the scoreboard, because upon award of an ippon the match is immediately terminated. Some computerized scoreboards will briefly indicate that an ippon has been scored.
Scoreboards normally also show the number of penalties imposed on each player, and sometimes the number of medical visits for each. (Only two "medical" attentions are allowed for each competitor during a match—most often for minor bleeds.)
Electronic scoreboards also usually include timers for measuring both competition time and osaekomi time.
In mixed martial artsSeveral judo practitioners have made an impact in mixed martial arts. Notable judo trained MMA fighters include former Russian national judo championship Bronze medalist Fedor Emelianenko, UFC fighters Karo Parisyan, Antonio Silva (fighter)|Antonio Silva, Rick Hawn, and Hector Lombard, and Olympic medalists Hidehiko Yoshida (Gold, 1992), and Ronda Rousey (Bronze, 2008).
Judo has been one of the primary martial arts displayed in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) competitions since MMA's inception.
The first official MMA fight, the Ultimate Fighting Competition (UFC), was held in 1993. It was advertised as a “no holds barred” fight. At the time, the public perception was that a larger/stronger human could dominate a smaller/weaker human. The fighters came from various martial arts or sports fighting backgrounds, including judo, karate, jiu-jitsu, boxing, wrestling, tae kwon do and kickboxing. They fought until the opponent was knocked out, tapped out (stopping the fight by tapping their hand), or the refereestopped the fight. The winner of the first Ultimate Fighting Championship was a small Brazilian, Royce Gracie, who used judo/Jujitsu submissions to defeat opponents twice his size *Royce Gracie is famous for his Brazilian Jiu jitsu, a hybrid fighting style that employs many judo techniques.
Many MMA fights are ended by submission holds most of which derive from judo. “Chokeholds are common in Jujitsu, judo and submission grappling, and most trainers discuss how fighter need to experience these techniques in order to learn how to resist them” *
“Judo resembles MMA's grappling aspects, particularly when both fighters are on the ground. MMA fans would easily recognize judo's submissions -- a fighter might "tap out," or concede the fight, when caught in a chokehold or an armbar” *Jujitsu, Brazilian Jujitsu, and judo all derive from one another. “For some time in Japan, judo and jiu-jitsu were almost synonymous. Judo was known as Kano's jiu-jitsu. Regardless, this answers the question, "why do they call it Brazilian jiu-jitsu and not Brazilian judo?" Because they were essentially the same thing at the time, remember, the Gracie family was learning jiu-jitsu and judo while Kano was still struggling to show the difference between the two and popularize his art. In the early 1900s there was very little difference between the two. In fact, judo was merely a collection of jiu-jitsu styles, whose strongest points were put together to make what then became judo”.*
The Japanese found judo superior to jujitsu because it involves both stand up and grappling techniques. “After a match-up between older styles of jiu-jitsu and judo at the Tokyo police headquarters, judo was named the national martial art in Japan. It was the official art used by law enforcement in the late 1800's, and continues to be popular to this day. During World War II, many U.S. soldiers were exposed to the art of judo and brought it back to America with them. The first issue of Black Belt magazine in America (1961) featured a sketch of a judo throw and was a special judo issue” *
Ronda Rousey, a female MMA champion, won a bronze medal in judo at the 2008 Olympics. “Rousey eventually got an offer to try MMA and had her first professional fight in 2011. She has since defeated all her opponents with a judo arm lock in less than five minutes and is now a champion in the combat sport”.*
Related arts and derivativesKano Jigoro's Kodokan judo is the most popular and well-known style of judo, but is not the only one. The terms judo and jujutsu were quite interchangeable in the early years, so some of these forms of judo are still known as jujutsu or jiu-jitsu either for that reason, or simply to differentiate them from mainstream judo. From Kano's original style of judo, several related forms have evolved—some now widely considered to be distinct arts:
Kansetsu and shime wazaThe application of joint manipulation and strangulation/choking techniques is generally safe under controlled conditions typical of judo dojo and in competition. It is usual for there to be age restrictions on the practice and application of these types of techniques, but the exact nature of these restrictions will vary from country to country and from organization to organization.
Nage wazaSafety in the practice of throwing techniques depends on the skill level of both tori and uke. Inexpertly applied throws have the potential to injure both tori and uke, for instance when tori compensates for poor technique by powering through the throw. Similarly, poor ukemi can result in injury, particularly from more powerful throws that uke lacks the skill to breakfall from. For these reasons, throws are normally taught in order of difficulty for both tori and uke. This is exemplified in the List of Kodokan judo techniques|Gokyo , a traditional grouping of throws arranged in order of difficulty of ukemi. Those grouped in are relatively simple to breakfall from whereas those grouped in are difficult to breakfall from.
Judoka (practitioner)A practitioner of judo is known as a , though traditionally only those of 4th Dan (rank)|dan or higher were called "Judoka". The suffix , when added to a noun, means a person with expertise or special knowledge on that subject. Other practitioners below the rank of 4th dan used to be called . The modern meaning of "Judoka" in English refers to a judo practitioner of any level of expertise.*
A judo teacher is called .* The word sensei comes from sen or saki (before) and sei (life) – i.e. one who has preceded you. In Western dojo, it is common to call any instructor of dan grade sensei. Traditionally, that title was reserved for instructors of 4th dan and above.
Judogi (uniform)Judo practitioners traditionally wear white uniforms called or .* sometimes abbreviated in the west as "gi". It comprises a heavy cotton kimono-like jacket called an , similar to traditional fastened by an , coloured to indicate Judo ranks and grades|rank, and cotton draw-string .* Early examples of keikogi had short sleeves and trouser legs and the modern long-sleeved judogi was adopted in 1906.*The modern use of the blue judogi for high level competition was first suggested by Anton Geesink at the 1986 Maastricht IJF DC Meeting.* For competition, a blue judogi is worn by one of the two competitors for ease of distinction by judges, referees, and spectators. In Japan, both judoka use a white judogi and the traditional red obi (based on the colors of the Japanese flag) is affixed to the belt of one competitor. Outside Japan, a colored obi may also be used for convenience in minor competitions, the blue judogi only being mandatory at the regional or higher levels, depending on organization. Japanese practitioners and traditionalists tend to look down on the use of blue because of the fact that judo is considered a pure sport, and replacing the pure white judogi for the impure blue, is an offense.*
For events organized under the auspices of the International judo Federation (IJF), judogi have to bear the IJF Official Logo Mark Label. This label demonstrates that the judogi has passed a number of quality control tests to ensure it conforms to construction regulations ensuring it is not too stiff, flexible, rigid or slippery to allow the opponent to grip or to perform techniques.*
Organizations: The international governing body for judo is the International Judo Federation (IJF), founded in 1951. Members of the IJF include the African Judo Union (AJU), the Pan-American Judo Confederation (PJC), the Judo Union of Asia (JUA), the European Judo Union (EJU) and the Oceania Judo Union (OJU), each comprising a number of national judo associations. The IJF is responsible for organising international competition and hosts the World Judo Championships and is involved in running the Olympic Judo events.*
Rank and gradingJudo is a hierarchical art, where seniority of judoka is designated by what is known as the - ranking system. This system was developed by Jigoro Kano based on the ranking system in the board game Go (game)|Go. Beginning students progress through kyu grades towards dan grades.
A judoka's position within the kyu-dan ranking system is displayed by the color of their belt. Beginning students typically wear a white belt, progressing through descending kyu ranks until they are deemed to have achieved a level of competence sufficient to be a dan grade, at which point they wear the . The kyu-dan ranking system has since been widely adopted by modern martial arts.*
The highest grade judan (tenth degree black belt) has no formal requirements and is decided by the president of the Kodokan, currently Kano Jigoro's grandson Yukimitsu Kano. As of 2011, List_of_judoka#Highest_grades|fifteen Japanese men have been promoted to this rank by the Kodokan, three of whom are still alive;* the IJF and Western national federations have promoted another seven who are not recognized by the Kodokan. On July 28, 2011, the promotion board of USA Judo awarded Keiko Fukuda the rank of 10th dan, who is the first woman to be promoted to judo's highest level, albeit not a Kodokan-recognized rank.
Although dan ranks tend to be consistent between national organizations there is more variation in the kyu grades, with some countries having more kyu grades. Although initially kyu grade belt colours were uniformly white, today a variety of colours are used. The first black belts to denote a Dan rank in the 1880s, initially the wide obi was used; as practitioners trained in kimono, only white belt|white and black obi were used. It was not until the early 1900s, after the introduction of the judogi, that an expanded colored belt system of awarding rank was created.*