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Below are descriptions of Neuro Linguistic Programming supplied by the Online Wellness Network wellness providers listed on this web site.

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NLP and hypnosis can be used for almost all topics mentioned. For some clients and problems it can be helpful to add more than only NLP. NLP changes brainpatterns and is therefor a tool for any state of mind in any situation. For example, when you are overweight it can be wise to also start doing some exercise, NLP and hypnosis can help you get more motivated to do so.

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NLP is a healing and communication system utilizing the most effective psychotherapeutic techniques known. Often refereed to as the users manual to the mind it is a complete system of healing in of itself. It contains some of the most effective methods known for very quickly healing and creating change in the mind and emotions.

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Neuro Linguistic Programming Description

* This article is updated daily from Wikipedia. It may contain minor formatting errors.
For the original content and references, click here. Last update: 8/18/2013.

Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is an approach to interpersonal communication|communication, personal development, and psychotherapy created by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in California, USA in the 1970s. Its creators claim a connection between the neurological processes ("neuro"), language ("linguistic") and behavioural patterns learned through experience ("programming") and that these can be changed to achieve specific goals in life.* Bandler and Grinder claim that the skills of exceptional people can be "modeled" using NLP methodology, then those skills can be acquired by anyone.* Bandler and Grinder also claim that NLP can treat problems such as phobias, major depressive disorder|depression, habit disorder, psychosomatic illnesses, myopia,* GINA: I have seen you demonstrate a technique that some people refer to as Dr. Bandler's Beauty treatment? Please tell us about that.
RICHARD [BANDLER]: Basically what happened is that I noticed that when I hypnotically regress people repeatedly they looked younger. So I started first thinking, well isn't there a way to maintain that. I noticed when I hypnotically regressed people to before the age of 5, who currently wore glasses, didn't need them to see. So I started leaving people's eyes young and growing the rest of them up to the present and it would change the prescription of their glasses radically to the point where they could see better. And done enough times, some of them could see without glasses. So I went a little step further, and did a DHE (Design Human Engineering™) treatment where we set up a mechanism in the back of their mind that repeatedly age regresses them hypnotically; when they sleep, when they blink, all kinds of things and in a state of time distortion. And it can take years off the way people look, it also ups their energy level and in some cases the bi product (sic) has been they recovered spontaneously from very serious diseases. Because they were aged regressed to where before the disease started. Now I cannot prove that but I've seen it enough times that I'm impressed with it.}} allergy, common coldIn a seminar, Bandler & Grinder (1981, p. 166) claimed that a single session of NLP combined with hypnosis could eliminate certain eyesight problems such as myopia and cure the common cold (op.cit., p. 174)...(Also, op.cit., p. 169) Bandler and Grinder believed that, by combining NLP with hypnotic regression, one not only cured a problem, but became amnesic for the fact that it even existed at all. Thus, after a session of "therapy," a smoker denied smoking before, even when family and friends insisted otherwise, becoming unable to account for such evidence as nicotine stains. Grinder, John.; Richard Bandler; Connirae Andreas (ed.) (1981). Trance-Formations: Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Structure of Hypnosis. Moab, UT: Real People Press. ISBN 0-911226-23-0. and learning disorders, often in a single session.{{cite book | last=Bandler | first=Richard | title=Time for a Change | year=1993 | publisher=Meta Pubns | isbn=9780916990282 | page=vii | quote=In single sessions, they can accelerate learning, neutralize phobias, enhance creativity, improve relationships, eliminate allergies, and lead firewalks without roasting toes. NLP achieves the goal of its inception. We have ways to do what only a genius could have done a decade ago.}}{{cite AV media | people=Bandler, Richard | year=2008 | title=What is NLP? | medium=Promotional video | language=English | url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vlcsFJyEXQ | accessdate=June 1, 2013 | quote=We can reliably get rid of a phobia in ten minutes -- every single time.| publisher=NLP Life }}{{cite book | last=Bandler | first=Richard | last2=Grinder | last2=John | editor1-last=Andreas | editor1-first=Connirae | title=Trance-formations | year=1985 | publisher=Real People Press | isbn=0911226222 | pages=166–8,173–4}}{{cite book | last=Grinder | first=John | last2=Bostic St. Clair | first2=Carmen| title=Whispering In The Wind | year=2001 | publisher=J & C Enterprises | isbn=0971722307 | chapter=Chapter 4: Personal Antecedents of NLP }} NLP has been adopted by some Hypnotherapy#Definition of a hypnotherapist|hypnotherapists and in seminars marketed to business and government.{{cite journal|last=Dowlen|first=Ashley|title=NLP - help or hype? Investigating the uses of neuro-linguistic programming in management learning|journal=Career Development International|date=1 January 1996|volume=1|issue=1|pages=27–34|doi=10.1108/13620439610111408}}Reviews of empirical research find that NLPs core tenets are poorly supported.{{cite journal|last=Witkowski|first=Tomasz|title=Thirty-Five Years of Research on Neuro-Linguistic Programming. NLP Research Data Base. State of the Art or Pseudoscientific Decoration?|journal=Polish Psychological Bulletin|date=1 January 2010|volume=41|issue=2|doi=10.2478/v10059-010-0008-0}} The balance of scientific evidence reveals NLP to be a largely discredited pseudoscience. Scientific reviews show it contains numerous factual errors,{{cite journal|last=von Bergen|first=C. W.|coauthors=Gary, Barlow Soper; Rosenthal, T.; Wilkinson, Lamar V.|title=Selected alternative training techniques in HRD|journal=Human Resource Development Quarterly|year=1997|volume=8|issue=4|pages=281–294|doi=10.1002/hrdq.3920080403}}{{cite journal|last=Druckman|first=Daniel|title=Be All That You Can Be: Enhancing Human Performance|journal=Journal of Applied Social Psychology|date=1 November 2004|volume=34|issue=11|pages=2234–2260|doi=10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb01975.x}} and fails to produce the results asserted by proponents.{{cite journal|last=Sharpley|first=Christopher F.|title=Research findings on neurolinguistic programming: Nonsupportive data or an untestable theory?|journal=Journal of Counseling Psychology|date=1 January 1987|volume=34|issue=1|pages=103–107|doi=10.1037/0022-0167.34.1.103}} According to Devilly (2005),{{cite journal|last=Devilly|first=Grant J.|title=Power Therapies and possible threats to the science of psychology and psychiatry|journal=Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry|date=1 June 2005|volume=39|issue=6|pages=437–445|doi=10.1111/j.1440-1614.2005.01601.x|pmid=15943644|accessdate=28 May 2013}} NLP has had a consequent decline in prevalence since the 1970s. Criticisms go beyond lack of empirical evidence for effectiveness, saying NLP exhibits pseudoscience|pseudoscientific characteristics, title,{{cite book|last=Corballis|first=M.C.|title=Mind Myths: Exploring Popular Assumptions About the Mind and Brain|year=1999|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|location=Chichester, UK|isbn=0-471-98303-9|page=41|edition=Repr.|editor=S.D. Sala|chapter=Are we in our right minds?}} concepts and terminology as well.{{cite journal | title=Bad language: Not-so Linguistic Programming| author=Stollznow, K. | journal=Skeptic (U.S. magazine) | year=2010 | volume=15 | issue=4 | page=7}} NLP serves as an example of pseudoscience for facilitating the teaching of scientific literacy at the professional and university level.{{cite book | title=Scientific Thinking in Speech and Language Therapy | publisher=Psychology Press | author=Lum.C | year=2001 | page=16 | isbn=0-8058-4029-X}}{{cite journal|last=Lilienfeld|first=Scott O.|coauthors=Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Morier, Dean|title=The Teaching of Courses in the Science and Pseudoscience of Psychology: Useful Resources|journal=Teaching of Psychology|date=1 July 2001|volume=28|issue=3|pages=182–191|doi=10.1207/S15328023TOP2803_03}}{{cite book | publisher=Wiley-Blackwell | author=Dunn D, Halonen J, Smith R|title=Teaching Critical Thinking in Psychology | year=2008 | page=12 | isbn=978-1-4051-7402-2}} NLP also appears on peer reviewed expert-consensus based lists of discredited interventions. In research designed to identify the "quack factor" in modern mental health practice, Norcross et al. (2006) {{cite journal|last=Norcross|first=John C.|coauthors=Koocher, Gerald P.; Garofalo, Ariele|title=Discredited psychological treatments and tests: A Delphi poll.|journal=Professional Psychology: Research and Practice|date=1 January 2006|volume=37|issue=5|pages=515–522|doi=10.1037/0735-7028.37.5.515}} list NLP as possibly or probably discredited for treatment of behavioural problems. Norcross et al. (2010) list NLP in the top ten most discredited interventions{{cite journal|last=Norcross|first=John C.|coauthors=Koocher, Gerald P.; Fala, Natalie C.; Wexler, Harry K.|title=What Does Not Work? Expert Consensus on Discredited Treatments in the Addictions|journal=Journal of Addiction Medicine|date=1 September 2010|volume=4|issue=3|pages=174–180|doi=10.1097/ADM.0b013e3181c5f9db}} and Glasner-Edwards and Rawson (2010) list NLP therapy as "certainly discredited".{{cite journal|last=Glasner-Edwards|first=Suzette|coauthors=Rawson, Richard|title=Evidence-based practices in addiction treatment: Review and recommendations for public policy|journal=Health Policy|date=1 October 2010|volume=97|issue=2-3|pages=93–104|doi=10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.05.013}}

History and conception

Early development

According to Bandler and Grinder, NLP comprises a methodology termed modeling and a set of techniques that were derived from its initial applications by Bandler and Grinder.{{cite book | last=Bandler | first=Richard | last2=Grinder | last2=John | title=The Structure of Magic I: A Book about Language and Therapy | year=1975 | publisher=Science and behavior Books Inc. | isbn=0831400447 | page=6}}{{cite book | last=Grinder | first=John | last2=Bostic St. Clair| first2=Carmen | title=Whispering In The Wind | year=2001 | publisher=J & C Enterprises | isbn=0971722307 | chapter=Chapter 2: Terminology }} Many of those methods that have come to be considered fundamental were derived from the initial modeling by Bandler and Grinder of the work of Virginia Satir, Milton Erickson and Fritz Perls.{{cite book | last=Bandler | first=Richard | last2=Grinder | first2=John | editor1-last=Andreas | editor1-first=Steve | title=Frogs into Princes:Neuro Linguistic Programming | year=1979 | publisher=Real People Press | isbn=0911226192 | page=8 }} Bandler and Grinder also drew upon theories of Gregory Bateson, Alfred Korzybski and Noam Chomsky, particularly transformational grammar,{{cite book|last=Wake|first=Lisa|title=Neurolinguistic psychotherapy : a postmodern perspective|year=2001|publisher=Routledge|location=London|isbn=9780415425414|accessdate=24 May 2013}} as well as ideas and techniques from Carlos Castaneda.{{cite book | last1 = McClendon| first1 = Terrence L.| title = The Wild Days. NLP 1972-1981| edition = 1st| year = 1989 | isbn = 0916990230| page = 41|quote = In association with Milton's work, Richard and John also came across Castaneda's books, The Teachings of don Juan, The Yaqui Way of Life, A Separate Reality and Tales of Power. From there it was an integration of don Juan's use of metaphor and hypnosis and Milton Erickson's language patterns and metaphor to induce an altered state of consciousness to create deep trance phenomena. One of the most dynamic techniques which evolved out of the hypnosis programs was the use of the double induction. The double induction is a trance induction carried out by two people. One person speaks into one ear using complex words and language patterns to occupy one brain hemisphere and the other person speaks into the other ear using childlike grammar and language to occupy the other brain hemisphere. The feeling sensations are experienced in the same half of the body as the auditory input. This technique was used in conversations that Carlos Castaneda had with don Juan and don Genaro. This technique was used frequently during the summing up of Richard and John's training programs as a forum for review, post hypnotic suggestions for future applications and learnings}} Bandler and Grinder claim that the therapeutic "magic" as performed in therapy by Perls, Satir and Erikson, and by performers in any complex human activity, had a structure that could be codified using their methodology and thereby learned by others. Their 1975 book The Structure of Magic I: A Book about Language and Therapy is intended to be a codification of the therapeutic techniques of Perls and Satir.page 6 of Bandler & Grinder 1975a.Bandler and Grinder say that they modeled Virginia Satir, toproduce what they termed the Meta-Model (via their process of modeling), a model for gathering information and challenging a client's language and underlying thinking. By challenging linguistic distortions, specifying generalizations, and recovering deleted information in the client's statements, the transformational grammar concepts of surface structure were said to yield a more complete representation of the underlying deep structure and to have therapeutic benefit.John Grinder, Suzette Elgin (1973). "A Guide to Transformational Grammar: History, Theory, Practice." Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0-03-080126-5. Reviewed by Frank H. Nuessel, Jr. The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 58, No. 5/6 (Sep–Oct., 1974), pp. 282–283{{cite journal|coauthors=Biedermann, Heinz-Joachim|title=Bandler and Grinder's neurolinguistic programming: Its historical context and contribution.|journal=Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training|date=1 January 1985|volume=22|issue=1|pages=59–62|doi=10.1037/h0088527|accessdate=24 May 2013|author=E. Jane Bradley|publisher=APA|issn=0033-3204|oclc=1588338}} Also derived from Satir were anchoring, future pacing and representational systems.{{cite journal |last=Spitzer |first=Robert |year=2010 |title=Virginia Satir & Origins of NLP |journal=Anchor Point Magazine | issue=July |page=? |publisher=? | year=1992 | doi= |url=http://www.social-engineer.org/wiki/archives/NLP/NLP-Satir395.pdf |accessdate=5 June 2013}} In contrast, the Milton-Model—a model of the purportedly hypnotic language of Milton Erickson—was described by Bandler and Grinder as "artfully vague" and metaphoric.{{cite book|title=Trance-formations: Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Structure of Hypnosis|year=1981|publisher=Real People Press|location=Moab|page=240|author=John Grinder|coauthors=Richard Bandler|editor=Connirae Andreas}}"artfully vague" occurs in the context of describing the "Milton-Model" The Milton-Model is used in combination with the Meta-Model as a softener, to induce "trance" and to deliver indirect therapeutic suggestion.{{cite book | last=Bandler | first=Richard | last2=Grinder | last2=John | editor1-last=Andreas | editor1-first=Connirae | title=Trance-formations | year=1985 | publisher=Real People Press | isbn=0911226222 | chapter=Appendix II}} However, adjunct lecturer in linguistics Stollznow, describes Bander and Grinder's reference to such experts as namedropping. Other than Satir, the people they cite as influences did not collaborate with Bandler or Grinder. Chomsky himself has no association with NLP whatsoever; his original work was intended as theory not therapy. Stollznow writes, “[o]ther than borrowing terminology, NLP does not bear authentic resemblance to any of Chomsky's theories or philosophies - linguistic, cognitive or political.”{{cite journal |last1=Stollznow |first1=Karen |year=2010 |title=Not-so Linguistic Programming |journal=Skeptic (U.S. magazine) |volume=15 |issue=4 |page=7 |publisher=The Skeptics Society |doi= |url=http://www.skeptic.com/magazine/archives/vol15n04.html |accessdate=1 June 2013}}According to André Muller Weitzenhoffer|Weitzenhoffer, "the major weakness of Bandler and Grinder's linguistic analysis is that so much of it is built upon untested hypotheses and is supported by totally inadequate data."{{cite book| last1 = Muller Weitzenhoffer| first1 = André| title = The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism| edition = 1st| year = 1989| publisher = John Wiley & Sons, Inc.| location = New York| isbn = 0471621684| chapter = Chapter 8 Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation| page = 304| url = http://books.google.com.au/books/about/The_Practice_of_Hypnotism_Applications_o.html?id=RPHaAAAAMAAJ}} Weitzenhoffer adds that Bandler and Grinder misuse formal logic and mathematics,{{cite book| last1 = Muller Weitzenhoffer| first1 = André| title = The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism| edition = 1st| year = 1989| publisher = John Wiley & Sons, Inc.| location = New York| isbn = 0471621684| chapter = Chapter 8 Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation| pages = 300–1| url = http://books.google.com.au/books/about/The_Practice_of_Hypnotism_Applications_o.html?id=RPHaAAAAMAAJ}} redefine or misunderstand terms from the linguistics' lexicon (e.g. nominalization),{{cite book| last1 = Muller Weitzenhoffer| first1 = André| title = The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism| edition = 1st| year = 1989| publisher = John Wiley & Sons, Inc.| location = New York| isbn = 0471621684| chapter = Chapter 8 Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation| pages = 304–5| quote = "I have chosen nominalization to explain what some of the problems are in Bandler and Grinder's linguistic approach to Ericksonian hypnotism. Almost any other linguistic concept used by these authors could have served equally well for the purpose of showing some of the inherent weaknesses in their treatment."|url = http://books.google.com.au/books/about/The_Practice_of_Hypnotism_Applications_o.html?id=RPHaAAAAMAAJ}} create a scientific facade by needlessly complicating Ericksonian concepts with unfounded claims,{{cite book| last1 = Muller Weitzenhoffer| first1 = André| title = The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism| edition = 1st| year = 1989| publisher = John Wiley & Sons, Inc.| location = New York| isbn = 0471621684| chapter = Chapter 8 Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation| pages = 307| quote = "As I have mentioned in the last chapter, any references made to left and right brain functions in relation to hypnotic phenomena must be considered as poorly founded. They do not add to our understanding of nor our ability to utilize hypnotic phenomena in the style of Erickson. Indeed, references such as Bandler and Grinder make to these functions give their subject matter a false appearance of having a more scientific status than it has."| url = http://books.google.com.au/books/about/The_Practice_of_Hypnotism_Applications_o.html?id=RPHaAAAAMAAJ}}make factual errors{{cite book| last1 = Muller Weitzenhoffer| first1 = André| title = The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism| edition = 1st| year = 1989| publisher = John Wiley & Sons, Inc.| location = New York| isbn = 0471621684| chapter = Chapter 8 Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation| page = 306| quote = "This work [TRANCE-Formation], incidentally, contains some glaring misstatements of facts. For example, Freud and Mesmer were depicted as contemporaries!"| url = http://books.google.com.au/books/about/The_Practice_of_Hypnotism_Applications_o.html?id=RPHaAAAAMAAJ}} and disregard or confuse concepts central to the Ericksonian approach.{{cite book| last1 = Muller Weitzenhoffer| first1 = André| title = The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism| edition = 1st| year = 1989| publisher = John Wiley & Sons, Inc.| location = New York| isbn = 0471621684| chapter = Chapter 8 "Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation"| pages = 306| quote = "One of the most striking features of the Bandler/Grinder interpretation is that it somehow ignores the issue of the existence and function of suggestion, which even in Erickson's own writings and those done with Rossi, is a central idea."|url = http://books.google.com.au/books/about/The_Practice_of_Hypnotism_Applications_o.html?id=RPHaAAAAMAAJ}}More recently (circa 1997), Bandler has claimed, "NLP™ [sic] is based on finding out what works and formalizing it. In order to formalize patterns I utilized everything from linguistics to holography...The models that constitute NLP™ [sic] are all formal models based on mathematical, logical principles [sic] such as Predicate logic|predicate calculus and the mathematical Holography#Mathematical model|equations underlying holography."{{cite web | last = Bandler | first = Richard | title = NLP Seminars Group - Frequently Asked Questions | website = NLP Seminars Group | publisher = NLP Seminars Group | url = http://www.purenlp.com/nlpfaqr.html | year = 1997 | accessdate = 8 August 2013 | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20130622080317/http://www.purenlp.com/nlpfaqr.html | archivedate = 22 June 2013}} However, there is no mention of the mathematics of holography nor of holography in general in McClendon's,{{cite book| last1 = McClendon| first1 = Terrence L.| title = The Wild Days. NLP 1972-1981| edition = 1st| year = 1989| isbn = 0916990230}} Spitzer's or Grinder's{{cite book | last=Grinder | first=John | last2=Bostic St. Clair| title=Whispering In The Wind | year=2001 | publisher=J & C Enterprises | isbn=0971722307 }} account of the development of NLP.

On the matter of the development of NLP, Grinder recollects:{{cite web | last = Grinder | first = John | others = Interviewed by Chris Collingwood and Jules Collingwood | title = 1996 Interview with John Grinder PhD, co-creator of NLP | website = Inspiritive | publisher = Inspiritive | url = http://www.inspiritive.com.au/grinterv.htm | month = July | year = 1996 | accessdate = 8 August 2013 | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20130428225949/http://www.inspiritive.com.au/grinterv.htm | archivedate = 28 April 2013}}{{quote|text=My memories about what we thought at the time of discovery (with respect to the classic code we developed - that is, the years 1973 through 1978) are that we were quite explicit that we were out to overthrow a paradigm and that, for example, I, for one, found it very useful to plan this campaign using in part as a guide the excellent work of Thomas Kuhn (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions) in which he detailed some of the conditions which historically have obtained in the midst of paradigm shifts. For example, I believe it was very useful that neither one of us were qualified in the field we first went after - psychology and in particular, its therapeutic application; this being one of the conditions which Kuhn identified in his historical study of paradigm shifts.}}

Philosopher Robert Todd Carroll responds that Grinder has not understood Thomas Kuhn|Kuhn's text on history and philosophy of science The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Carroll replies: (a) individual scientists never have nor are they ever able to create paradigm shifts volitionally and Kuhn does not suggest otherwise; (b) Kuhn's text does not contain the idea that being unqualified in a field of science is a prerequisite to producing a result that necessitates a paradigm shift in that field and (c) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is foremost a work of history and not an instructive text on creating paradigm shifts and such a text is not possible—extraordinary discovery is not a formulaic procedure. Carroll explains that a paradigm shift is not a planned activity, rather it is an outcome of scientific effort within the current (dominant) paradigm that produces data that can't be adequately accounted for within the current paradigm—hence a paradigm shift, i.e. the adoption of a new paradigm. In developing NLP Bandler and Grinder were not responding to a paradigmatic crisis in psychology nor did they produce any data that caused a paradigmatic crisis in psychology. There is no sense in which Bandler and Grinder caused or participated in a paradigm shift. "What did Grinder and Bandler do that makes it impossible to continue doing psychology...without accepting their ideas? Nothing.", argues Carroll.

Commercialization and evaluation

By the late 1970s, the human potential movement had developed into an industry and provided a market for some NLP ideas. At the center of this growth was the Esalen Institute at Big Sur, California. Perls had led numerous Gestalt therapy seminars at Esalen. Satir was an early leader and Bateson was a guest teacher. Bandler and Grinder claimed that in addition to being a therapeutic method, NLP was also a study of communication and began marketing it as a business tool, claiming that, "if any human being can do anything, so can you".{{cite journal|coauthors=Heidi Yorkshire|title=The Bandler Method|journal=Mother Jones Magazine|year=1989|volume=14|issue=2|page=26|url=http://www.american-buddha.com/bandler.method.htmlpg=PA26|accessdate=24 May 2013|author=Frank Clancy|publisher=Mother Jones|issn=0362-8841}} After 150 students paid $1,000 each for a ten-day workshop in Santa Cruz,California, Bandler and Grinder gave up academic writing and produced popular books from seminar transcripts, such as Frogs into Princes, which sold more than 270,000 copies. According to court documents relating to an intellectual property dispute between Bandler and Grinder, Bandler made more than $800,000 in 1980 from workshop and book sales.

A community of psychotherapists and students began to form around Bandler and Grinder's initial works, leading to the growth and spread of NLP as a theory and practice.{{cite book|title=Social Engineering|publisher=John Wiley & Sons Inc|author=Christopher Hadnagy|coauthors=Paul Wilson|accessdate=24 May 2013|date=21 December 2010|isbn=9780470639535}} For example, Tony Robbins trained with Grinder and utilized a few ideas from NLP as part of his own self-help and motivational speaking programs.{{cite book|title=Sham: How the Self-Help Movement Made America Helpless|year=2006|publisher=Crown Publishing Group|isbn=9781400054107|author=Steve Salerno|accessdate=24 May 2013}} Bandler led several unsuccessful efforts to exclude other parties from using NLP.{{cite journal|coauthors=John A. Swets|title=Enhancing human performance: Issues, theories, and techniques|journal=Human Resource Development Quarterly|year=1988|volume=1|issue=2|pages=202–206|doi=10.1002/hrdq.3920010212|author=Daniel Druckman|publisher=National Academy Press|location=Washington, DC}} Meanwhile, the rising number of practitioners and theorists led NLP to become even less uniform than it was at its foundation. Prior to the decline of NLP, scientific researchers began testing its theoretical underpinnings empirically, with research indicating a lack of empirical support for NLP's essential theories. The 1990s were characterized by fewer scientific studies evaluating the methods of NLP than the previous decade. Witkowski attributes this to a declining interest in the debate as the result of a lack of empirical support for NLP from its proponents.

Main components and core concepts

NLP can be understood in terms of three broad components and the central concepts pertaining to those:
  • Subjectivity. According to Bandler and Grinder:
  • – We experience the world Subjectivity|subjectively thus we create subjective representations of our experience. These subjective representation of experience are constituted in terms of five senses and Natural language|language. That is to say our Qualia|subjective conscious experience is in terms of the traditional senses of Visual perception|vision, Hearing (sense)|audition, Somatosensory system|tactition, olfaction and Taste|gustation such that when we—for example—rehearse an actvity "in our heads", recall an event or anticipate the future we will "see" images, "hear" sounds, "taste" flavours, "feel" tactile sensations, "smell" odours and think in some (natural) language.{{cite book| last1 = Grinder| first1 = John| last2 = Bandler| first2 = Richard| title = The Structure of Magic II| edition = 1st| year = 1976| publisher = Science and Behavior Books| location = California| isbn = 0831400498| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=7vvaAAAAMAAJ| pages = 3–8}}{{cite book| last1 = Dilts| first1 = Robert| last2 = Grinder| first2 = John| last3 = Bandler| first3 = Richard| last4 = Bandler| first4 = Leslie C.| last5 = DeLozier| first5 = Judith| title = Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience| edition = Limited| year = 1980| publisher = Meta Publications| location = California| isbn = 0916990079| pages = 13–14| quote = "There are three characteristics of effective patterning in NLP which sharply distinguish it from behavioral science as it is commonly practiced today. First, for a pattern or generalization regarding human communication to be acceptable or well–formed in NLP, it must include in the description the human agents who are initiating and responding to the pattern being described, their actions, their possible responses. Secondly, the description of the pattern must be represented in sensory grounded terms which are available to the user. This user–oriented constraint on NLP ensures usefulness. We have been continually struck by the tremendous gap between theory and practice in the behavioral sciences — this requirement closes that gap. Notice that since patterns must be represented in sensory grounded terms, available through practice to the user, a pattern will typically have multiple representation — each tailored for the differing sensory capabilities of individual users...Thirdly, NLP includes within its descriptive vocabulary terms which are not directly observable [i.e. representational systems]" | url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=CwsRAQAAIAAJ}} Furthermore it is claimed that these subjective representations of experience have a discernible structure, a pattern. It is in this sense that NLP is sometimes defined as the study of the structure of subjective experience.{{cite book| last1 = Dilts| first1 = Robert| last2 = Grinder| first2 = John| last3 = Bandler| first3 = Richard| last4 = Bandler| first4 = Leslie C.| last5 = DeLozier| first5 = Judith| title = Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience| edition = Limited| year = 1980| publisher = Meta Publications| location = California | isbn = 0916990079| page = 7| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=CwsRAQAAIAAJ}}
  • – Behaviour can be described and understood in terms of these sense-based subjective representations. Behaviour is broadly conceived to include verbal and non-verbal communication, incompetent, maladaptive or "pathological" behaviour as well as effective or skillfull behaviour.{{cite book| last1 = Dilts| first1 = Robert| last2 = Grinder| first2 = John| last3 = Bandler| first3 = Richard| last4 = Bandler| first4 = Leslie C.| last5 = DeLozier| first5 = Judith| title = Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience| edition = Limited| year = 1980| publisher = Meta Publications| location = California| isbn = 0916990079| pages = 36| quote = "The basic elements from which the patterns of human behavior are formed are the perceptual systems through which the members of the species operate on their environment: vision (sight), audition (hearing), kinesthesis (body sensations) and olfaction/gustation (smell/taste). The neurolinguistic programming model presupposes that all of the distinctions we as human beings are able to make concerning our environment (internal and external) and our behavior can be usefully represented in terms of these systems. These perceptual classes constitute the structural parameters of human knowledge. We postulate that all of our ongoing experience can usefully be coded as consisting of some combination of these sensory classes."| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=CwsRAQAAIAAJ}}{{cite book| last1 = Grinder| first1 = John| last2 = Bandler| first2 = Richard| title = Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H.Erickson: Volume 2| edition = 1st| year = 1977| publisher = Meta Publications| pages = 11–19| isbn = 1555520537| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=u_gbkgAACAAJ}}
  • – Behaviour (in self and others) can be modified by manipulating these sense-based subjective representations.{{cite book| last1 = Hall| first1 = L. Michael| last2 = Belnap| first2 = Barbara P.| title = The Sourcebook Of Magic: A Comprehensive Guide To The Technology Of NLP| edition = 1st| origyear = 1999| year = 2000| publisher = Crown House Publishing Limited| location = Wales| isbn = 1899836225| pages = 89–93| quote = "#23 The Change Personal History Pattern"}}{{cite book| last1 = Hall| first1 = L. Michael| last2 = Belnap| first2 = Barbara P.| title = The Sourcebook Of Magic: A Comprehensive Guide To The Technology Of NLP| edition = 1st| origyear = 1999| year = 2000| publisher = Crown House Publishing Limited| location = Wales| isbn = 1899836225| pages = 93–5| quote = "#24 The Swish Pattern"}}{{cite book | last=Bandler | first=Richard | last2=Grinder | last2=John | editor1-last=Andreas | editor1-first=Connirae | title=Trance-formations | year=1985 | publisher=Real People Press | isbn=0911226222 | chapter = Appendix II Hypnotic Language Patterns: The Milton-Model | pages=240–50}}{{cite book| last1 = Bandler| first1 = Richard| last2 = Grinder| last2 = John| editor1-last = Andreas| editor1-first = Steve| title = Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming| chapter = I Sensory Experience| pages = 5–78| edition = 1st| year = 1979| publisher = Real People Press| location = Utah| isbn = 0911226192| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=LH52QgAACAAJ}}{{cite book| last1 = Hall| first1 = L. Michael| last2 = Belnap| first2 = Barbara P.| title = The Sourcebook Of Magic: A Comprehensive Guide To The Technology Of NLP| edition = 1st| origyear = 1999| year = 2000| publisher = Crown House Publishing Limited| location = Wales| isbn = 1899836225| pages = 39–40| quote = "#2 Pacing Or Matching Another's Model Of The World"}}{{cite book| last1 = Dilts| first1 = Robert| last2 = Grinder| first2 = John| last3 = Bandler| first3 = Richard| last4 = Bandler| first4 = Leslie C.| last5 = DeLozier| first5 = Judith| title = Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience| edition = Limited| year = 1980| publisher = Meta Publications| location = California| isbn = 0916990079| page = 7| quote = "NLP presents specific tools which can be applied effectively in any human interaction. It offers specific techniques by which a practitioner may usefully organize and re–organize his or her subjective experience or the experiences of a client in order to define and subsequently secure any behavioral outcome."| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=CwsRAQAAIAAJ}}
  • Consciousness. NLP is predicated on the notion that consciousness is bifurcated into a conscious component and a unconscious component. Those subjective representations that occur outside of an individual's awareness comprise what is referred to as the "unconscious mind".{{cite book| last1 = Dilts| first1 = Robert| last2 = Grinder| first2 = John| last3 = Bandler| first3 = Richard| last4 = Bandler| first4 = Leslie C.| last5 = DeLozier| first5 = Judith| title = Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience| edition = Limited| year = 1980| publisher = Meta Publications| location = California | isbn = 0916990079| pages = 77–80 |quote = Strategies and representations which typically occur below an individual's level of awareness make up what is often called or referred to as the "unconscious mind."| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=CwsRAQAAIAAJ}}
  • Learning. NLP utilises an imitative method of learning—termed modeling—that is claimed to be able to codify and reproduce an exemplar's expertise in any domain of activity. An important part of the codification process is a description of the sequence of the sensory/linguistic representations of the subjective experience of the exemplar during execution of the expertise.{{cite book| last1 = Bandler| first1 = Richard| last2 = Grinder| last2 = John| editor1-last = Andreas| editor2-first = Steve| title = Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming| edition = 1st| year = 1979| publisher = Real People Press| location = Utah| isbn = 0911226192| pages = 7,9,10,36,123| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=LH52QgAACAAJ}}{{cite book| last1 = Bandler| first1 = Richard| last2 = Grinder| last2 = John| title = The Structure of Magic I: A Book about Language and Therapy| edition = 1st| year = 1975| publisher = Science and Behavior Books, Inc.| location = California| isbn = 0831400447| page = 6| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=7vvaAAAAMAAJ}}{{cite book| last1 = Dilts| first1 = Robert| last2 = Grinder| first2 = John| last3 = Bandler| first3 = Richard| last4 = Bandler| first4 = Leslie C.| last5 = DeLozier| first5 = Judith| title = Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience| edition = Limited| year = 1980| publisher = Meta Publications| location = California| isbn = 0916990079| pages = 35, 78| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=CwsRAQAAIAAJ}}{{cite book| last1 = Grinder | first1 = John | last2 = Bostic St Clair| first2 = Carmen| title = Whispering In The Wind| edition = 1st | year = 2001| publisher = John Grinder & Carmen Bostic| isbn = 0971722307| pages = 1,10,28,34,189,227–8 | url = http://nlpwhisperinginthewind.com/the-book/}}

    Techniques or set of practices

    further|Methods of neuro-linguistic programming}} According to one study by Steinbach,Steinbach, A. (1984). Neurolinguistic programming: a systematic approach to change. Canadian Family Physician, 30, 147-50. PMC 2153995 a classic interaction in NLP can be understood in terms of several major stages including establishing rapport, gleaning information about a problem mental state and desired goals, using specific tools and techniques to make interventions, and integrating proposed changes into the client's life. The entire processis guided by the non-verbal responses of the client. The first is the act of establishing and maintaining rapport between the practitioner and the client which is achieved through pacing and leading the verbal (e.g. sensory predicates and keywords) and non-verbal behaviour (e.g. matching and mirroring non-verbal behaviour, or responding to eye movements) of the client.{{Cite book|author=Bandler, R., Grinder, J. |title=Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming |location=Moab, UT |publisher=Real People Press |year=1979 |pages=149 (p.8 (quote), pp. 15, 24, 30, 45,52) |isbn=0-911226-19-2}}Once rapport is established, the practitioner may gather information (e.g. using the Meta-Model questions) about the client's present state as well as help the client define a desired state or goal for the interaction. The practitioner pays particular attention to the verbal and non-verbal responses as the client defines the present state and desired state and any "resources" that may be required to bridge the gap. The client is typically encouraged to consider the consequences of the desired outcome, and how they may affect his or her personal or professional life and relationships, taking into account any positive intentions of any problems that may arise (i.e. ecological check). Fourth, the practitioner assists the client in achieving the desired outcomes by using certain tools and techniques to change internal representations and responses to stimuli in the world.Bandler, 1984. pp. 134–137{{cite journal|author=Masters, B Rawlins, M, Rawlins, L, Weidner, J.|year=1991|title=The NLP swish pattern: An innovative visualizing technique|journal=Journal of Mental Health Counseling|volume= 13|issue=1|pages=79–90|url=http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1991-19473-001}} Finally, the changes are "future paced" by helping the client to mentally rehearse and integrate the changes into his or her life. For example, the client may be asked to "step into the future" and represent (mentally see, hear and feel) what it is like having already achieved the outcome.

    According to Stollznow (2010), "NLP also involves fringe discourse analysis and "practical" guidelines for "improved" communication. For example, one text asserts "when you adopt the "but" word, people will remember what you said afterwards. With the "and" word, people remember what you said before and after."

    Applications

    Psychotherapeutic

    Early books about NLP had a psychotherapeutic focus given that the early models were psychotherapists. As an approach to psychotherapy, NLP shares similar core assumptions and foundations in common with some contemporary brief and systemic practices,Rubin Battino (2002) Expectation: The Very Brief Therapy Book. Crown House Publishing. ISBN 1-84590-028-6Kerry, S. (2009) Pretreatment expectations of psychotherapy clients, University of Alberta (Canada) such as solution focused brief therapy.Bill O'Connell (2005) Solution-focused therapy (Brief therapy series). Sage; Second Edition *p. 9*Windy Dryden (2007) Dryden's handbook of individual therapy. 5th edition. Sage. ISBN 1-4129-2238-0 *p. 382* NLP has also been acknowledged as having influenced these practices{{cite journal | author = Beyebach M., Rodríguez Morejón A. | year = 1999 | title = Some thoughts on integration in solution-focused therapy | journal = Journal of Systemic Therapies | volume = 18 | pages = 24–42 }}{{cite journal|last=Pesut|first=Daniel J.|title=|journal=Issues in Mental Health Nursing|date=1 January 1991|volume=12|issue=1|pages=9–18|doi=10.3109/01612849109058206}} with its reframing techniques{{cite journal | author = Maag John W | year = 1999 | title = Why they say no: Foundational precises and techniques for managing resistance | journal = Focus on Exceptional Children | volume = 32 | page = 1 |url=http://altcommtechniques.com/publications/why_they_say_no.pdf}}{{cite journal | author = Maag John W | year = 2000 | title = Managing resistance | journal = Intervention in School and Clinic | volume = 35 | page = 3 | doi = 10.1177/105345120003500301 | issue = 3 }} which seeks to achieve behaviour change by shifting its context or meaning,Bandler & Grinder 1982 as cited by Maag 1999, 2000 for example, by finding the positive connotation of a thought or behaviour.

    The two main therapeutic uses of NLP are: (1) as an adjunct by therapists{{cite PMID|2296919}} practicing in other therapeutic disciplines; (2) as a specific therapy called Neurolinguistic PsychotherapyBridoux, D., Weaver, M., (2000) "Neuro-linguistic psychotherapy." In Therapeutic perspectives on working with lesbian, gay and bisexual clients. Davies, Dominic (Ed); Neal, Charles (Ed). (pp. 73–90). Buckingham, England: Open University Press (2000) xviii, 187 pp. ISBN 0-335-20333-7 which is recognized by the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy{{cite web|author=UKCP |url= http://www.psychotherapy.org.uk/experiential_constuctivist.html |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080612155128/http://www.psychotherapy.org.uk/experiential_constuctivist.html |archivedate=2008-06-12 |title=United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy – List of Recognized Experimental Constructivist forms of therapies |publisher=Psychotherapy.org.uk |accessdate=2009-08-19}} with accreditation governed at first by the Association for Neuro Linguistic Programming{{cite web|url=http://www.cleanlanguage.co.uk/validation.html |title=The road to recognition: NLP in Psychotherapy and Counselling |accessdate=29 January 2010}} and more recently by its daughter organization the Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy and Counselling Association.{{cite web|url=http://www.psychotherapy.org.uk/iqs/dbitemid.84/sfa.view/cs1.html |title=Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy Counselling Association NLPtCA |accessdate=29 January 2010}} Neither Neuro-Linguistic Programming nor Neuro-Linguistic Psychotherapy are National Institute for Health and Care Excellence|NICE-approved.{{cite web | title = Talking therapies: A four-year plan of action | publisher = Department of Health (UK) | year = 2011 | url = https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/135463/dh_123985.pdf.pdf | format = PDF | page = 16 | accessdate = 24 June 2013 }}According to Stollznow (2010) "Bandler and Grinder's infamous Frogs into Princes and their other books boast that NLP is a cure-all that treats a broad range of physical and mental conditions and learning difficulties, including epilepsy, myopia and dyslexia. With its promises to cure schizophrenia, depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and its dismissal of psychiatric illnesses as psychosomatic, NLP shares similarities with Scientology and the Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR)." A systematic review of experimental studies by Sturt et al (2012) concluded that "that there is little evidence that NLP interventions improve health-related outcomes."{{cite journal | last1 = Sturt | first1 = Jackie | last2 = Ali | first2= Saima | last3 = Robertson | first3 = Wendy | last4= Metcalfe | first4 = David | last5 = Grove | first5 = Amy | last6 = Bourne | first6 = Claire | last7 = Bridle | first7 = Chris | title = Neurolinguistic programming: a systematic review of the effects on health outcomes | journal = British Journal of General Practice | volume = 62 | issue = 604 | pages = e757-64 | publisher = Royal College of General Practitioners | location = | date = November 2012 | url = http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/rcgp/bjgp/2012/00000062/00000604/art00031 | doi = 10.3399/bjgp12X658287 | id =23211179}} In his review of NLP, Stephen Briers writes, "NLP is not really a cohesive therapy but a ragbag of different techniques without a particularly clear theoretical basis...[and its] evidence base is virtually non-existent."{{cite book | last1 = Briers | first1 = Stephen | title = brilliant Cognitive Behavioural Therapy | publisher = Pearson | edition = 2nd | year = 2012 | location = Harlow | url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=6BQ2S3F_eDMC | page = 11 | isbn = 0273777734}} Eisner writes, "NLP appears to be a superficial and gimmicky approach to dealing with mental health problems. Unfortunately, NLP appears to be the first in a long line of mass marketing seminars that purport to virtually cure any mental disorder...it appears that NLP has no empirical or scientific support as to the underlying tenets of its theory or clinical effectiveness. What remains is a mass-marketed serving of psychopablum."{{cite book | last1 = Eisner | first1 = Donald | title = The Death of Psychotherapy: From Freud to Alien Abductions | publisher = Praeger | edition = 1st | year = 2000 | location = | url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=hmcDl6l8uXwC | pages = 158–9 | isbn = 0275964132 }}André Muller Weitzenhoffer—a friend and peer of Milton Erickson—wrote, "Has NLP really abstracted and explicated the essence of successful therapy and provided everyone with the means to be another Whittaker, Virginia Satir, or Erickson?...[NLPs] failure to do this is evident because today there is no multitude of their equals, not even another Whittaker, Virginia Satir, or Erickson. Ten years should have been sufficient time for this to happen. In this light, I cannot take NLP seriously...[NLPs] contributions to our understanding and use of Ericksonian techniques are equally dubious. Patterns I and II are poorly written works that were an overambitious, pretentious effort to reduce hypnotism to a magic of words." {{cite book| last1 = Muller Weitzenhoffer| first1 = André| title = The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional and Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism| edition = 1st| year = 1989| publisher = John Wiley & Sons, Inc.| location = New York| isbn = 0471621684| chapter = Chapter 8 "Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation"| page = 305| url = http://books.google.com.au/books/about/The_Practice_of_Hypnotism_Applications_o.html?id=RPHaAAAAMAAJ}}Clinical psychologist Stephen Briers questions the value of the NLP maxim—a presuppoistion in NLP jargon—"there is no failure, only feedback".{{cite book| last1 = Dilts| first1 = Robert| last2 = DeLozier| first2 = Judith| title = Encyclopedia of Systemic Neuro-Linguistic Programming and NLP New Coding| edition = 1st| year = 2000| publisher = NLP University Press| location = Santa Cruz| isbn = 0970154003| page = 1002| url = http://nlpuniversitypress.com/html2/PrPu25.html}} Briers argues that the denial of the existence of failure diminishes its instructive value. He offers Walt Disney, Isaac Newton and J.K. Rowling as three examples of unambiguous acknowledged personal failure that served as an impetus to great success. According to Briers, it was "the crash-and-burn type of failure, not the sanitised NLP Failure Lite, i.e. the failure-that-isn't really-failure sort of failure" that propelled these individuals to success. Briers contends that adherence to the maxim leads to self-deprecation. According to Briers, personal endeavour is a product of invested values and aspirations and the dismissal of personally significant failure as mere feedback effectively denigrates what one values. Briers writes, "Sometimes we need to accept and mourn the death of our dreams, not just casually dismiss them as inconsequential. NLP's reframe casts us into the role of a widower avoiding the pain of grief by leap-frogging into a rebound relationship with a younger woman, never pausing to say a proper goodbye to his dead wife." Briers also contends that the NLP maxim is narcissistic, self-centred and divorced from notions of moral responsibility.{{cite book| last1 = Briers| first1 = Stephen| title = Psychobabble: Exploding the myths of the self-help generation | edition = 1st| year = 2012| publisher = Pearson Education Limited | location = Santa Cruz| isbn = 0273772392 | chapter = MYTH 16: There is no failure, only feedback| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=2zsQeth9yRAC}}

    Other uses

    Although the original core techniques of NLP were therapeutic in orientation their genericity enabled them to be applied to other fields. These applications include persuasion, sales,{{cite doi|10.1300/J283v04n03_02}} negotiation,Tosey P. & Mathison, J., "Fabulous Creatures Of HRD: A Critical Natural History Of Neuro-Linguistic Programming", University of Surrey Paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research & Practice across Europe, Oxford Brookes Business School, 26–28 June 2007 management training,{{cite journal|last=Yemm|first=Graham|title=Can NLP help or harm your business?|journal=Industrial and Commercial Training|date=1 January 2006|volume=38|issue=1|pages=12–17|doi=10.1108/00197850610645990}} sports,Ingalls, Joan S. (1988) "Cognition and athletic behavior: An investigation of the NLP principle of congruence." Dissertation Abstracts International. Vol 48(7-B), p. 2090. {{OCLC|42614014}} teaching, coaching, team building, and public speaking.

    Scientific evaluation

    Empirical validity

    In the early 1980s, NLP was advertised as an important advance in psychotherapy and counseling, and attracted some interest in counseling research and clinical psychology. However, as controlled trials failed to show any benefit from NLP and its advocates made increasingly dubious claims, scientific interest in NLP faded.

    Focussing primarily on preferred representational systems, reviews by Sharpley (1984){{cite journal | last1 = Sharpley | first1 = Christopher .F. | title = Predicate matching in NLP: a review of research on the preferred representational system. | journal = Journal of Counseling Psychology | volume = | issue = 31 | year = 1984 | pages = 238–48 | publisher = | date = | url = | doi =}} and—in response to criticism from Einspruch and Forman (1987){{cite journal|last=Einspruch|first=Eric L.|coauthors=Forman, Bruce D.|title=Observations concerning research literature on neuro-linguistic programming.|journal=Journal of Counseling Psychology|date=1 January 1985|volume=32|issue=4|pages=589–596|doi=10.1037/0022-0167.32.4.589}}—Sharpley (1987) concluded that there was little evidence for NLP's usefulness as an effective counseling tool. Reviewing the literature, Heap (1988) also concluded that objective and fair investigations had shown no support for NLP's claims about preferred representational systems.Heap. M., (1988) *Neurolinguistic programming: An interim verdict*. In M. Heap (Ed.) Hypnosis: Current Clinical, Experimental and Forensic Practices. London: Croom Helm, pp. 268–280.A research committee working for the United States National Research Council led by Daniel Druckman came to two conclusions. First, the committee "found little if any" evidence to support NLP's assumptions or to indicate that it is effective as a strategy for social influence. "It assumes that by tracking another's eye movements and language, an NLP trainer can shape the person's thoughts, feelings, and opinions (Dilts, 1983Dilts, Robert (1983) Roots of Neuro-Linguistic Programming, Meta Publications, Capitola, CA, ISBN 0-916990-12-5). There is no scientific support for these assumptions." Secondly, the committee members "were impressed with the modeling approach used to develop the technique. The technique was developed from careful observations of the way three master psychotherapists conducted their sessions, emphasizing imitation of verbal and nonverbal behaviors... This then led the committee to take up the topic of expert modeling in the second phase of its work." Von Bergen et al. (1997) state that "the most telling commentary on NLP may be that in the latest revision of his text on enhancing human performance, Druckman (Druckman & Bjork 1991) omitted all reference to Neurolinguistic Programming." According to Gelso and Fassinger (1990) Sharpley's literature review, marked a decline in empirical research of NLP, and particularly in matching sensory predicates and its use in the counselor-client relationship in counseling psychology.{{cite journal|last=Gelso|first=C J|coauthors=Fassinger, R E|title=Counseling Psychology: Theory and Research on Interventions|journal=Annual Review of Psychology|date=1 January 1990|volume=41|issue=1|pages=355–386|doi=10.1146/annurev.ps.41.020190.002035|quote=Neurolinguistic programming, focused on such variables as sensory mode preference and use (e.g. Graunke & Roberts 1985) and predicate matching (e.g. Elich et al 1985; Mercier & Johnson 1984) had shown promise at the beginning of the decade, but after several years of conflicting and confusing results, Sharpley (1984, 1987) reviewed the research and concluded that there was little support for the assumptions of NLP. This research is now clearly on the decline, underscoring the value of thoughtful reviews and the publication of nonsupportive results in guiding empirical efforts.}}NLP practitioners and academics Mathison and Tosey have argued that the experimental approach is not always appropriate for researching NLP, instead proposing that NLP should be researched Phenomenology (science)|phenomenologically.{{cite web|url=http://www.som.surrey.ac.uk/NLP/Research/index.asp |title=Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Research |accessdate=22 February 2010}}{{Cite doi|10.1108/17465641011042035}} Gareth Roderique-Davies (2009) responded that "Phenomenological research is free from hypotheses, pre-conceptions and assumptions, and seeks to describe rather than explain. Given the claims made by proponents of NLP, this adds little to the credibility debate and would produce reports concerning the experience from the perspective of the individual rather than confirmation of the supposed efficacy. The fact remains that NLP proponents make specific claims about how NLP works and what it can do and this compels providing evidence to substantiate these claims."{{cite doi|10.1108/17581184200900014}} *He argued that the proposal to conduct phenomenology research using NLP modeling "constitutes an admission that NLP does not have an evidence base and that NLP practitioners are seeking a post-hoc credibility."

    Rowan (2008){{cite journal | last1 = Rowan | first1 = John | title = NLP is not based on constructivism | journal = The Coaching Psychologist | volume = 4 | issue = 3 | pages = 1748-1104 | month = December | year = 2008 | issn = 17481104 | publisher = The British Psychological Society | url = http://www.sgcp.org.uk/sgcp/publications/the-coaching-psychologist/the-coaching-psychologist-4.3$.cfm }} addresses recent efforts by some NLP proponents (e.g. Wake (2008);{{cite book| last1 = Wake|first1 = Lisa| title = Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy: A Postmodern Perspective| edition = 1st | date = 29 March 2008| publisher = Routledge| location = East Sussex| isbn = 0415425417| url = http://books.google.com.au/books/about/Neurolinguistic_Psychotherapy.html?id=8wIy20m_u9kC}} Mathison and Tosey (2008){{cite journal | last1 = Mathison | first1 = Jane | last2 = Tosey | first1 = Paul | title = Innovations in constructivist research: NLP, psychophenomenology and the exploration of inner landscapes | journal = The Psychotherapist | publisher = UK Council for Psychotherapy | issue = 37 | pages = 5–8 | year = 2008 | url = http://www.psychotherapy.org.uk/the_psychotherapist.html}}) to give NLP Epistemology|epistemic foundation in Social constructivism|constructivism. According to Rowan, "Constructivism (and constructionism, which is closely similar) in all its forms questions the existence of a fixed external reality, ready to be discovered by scientists...The basic case is that knowledge, scientific or otherwise, is not obtained by objective means but is constructed through social discourse." Rowan argues that the only philosophical commitment that is explicitly and implicitly present in NLP is a "broad and undiscriminating pragmatism — let's see what works." Rowan explains that Bandler and Grinder adopted concepts from their examplars—Milton H. Erickson|Erickson, Virginia Satir|Satir and Fritz Perls|Perls—without scrutiny or criticism, as per their pragmatism. Rowan explains that Bandler and Grinder at no point—for example—subjected Erickson's concept of "The Unconscious" to any critical analysis, they took it entirely for granted. Rowan argues that this is entirely antithetical to constructivism and that these notionally constructivist NLP proponents do not understand constructivism or its implications. Taking constructivism seriously necessitates challenging Bandler and Grinder and their exemplars on all their assumptions, according to Rowan. Rowan suggests that these authors' commitment to constructivism doesn't extend beyond lip service and name dropping. Rowan charges: "Let me put it even more simply: you cannot be based on constructivism and hold in an unquestioned way a belief in the Unconscious. But it is even worse than this – in NLP they shift from one definition of the Unconscious to another. In Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy (Wake, 2008), on p.49, we are accepting the Freudian unconscious, on p.56 we are accepting the hypnotic notion of the unconscious, on pp.59–62 we are going with the definition of Morris Massey, on p.135 we have a whole farrago of 21 functions of the unconscious, quoted from Tad James, an exponent of ‘Quantum Linguistics' and ‘Time Line Therapy'. This can only be described as undiscriminating...this is not constructivism, but something different, and highly dubious."

    More recent systematic reviews of all NLP-related research conclude that that the efficacy of NLP and the validity of its core tenets has not been demonstrated; this is a view that is shared by some NLP proponents that are calling for rigorous scientific research.{{cite book | last1 = Wake | first1 = Lisa | last2 = Gray | first2 = Richard M. | last3 = Bourke | first3 = Frank S. | title = The Clinical Effectiveness of Neurolinguistic Programming: A Critical Appraisal | chapter = Introduction | chapterurl = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=qBXnGQVZ7fMC&lpg=PA1&pg=PT15#v=onepage&q&f=false | publisher = Routledge | edition = 1st | year = 2013 | location = Oxon | url = | isbn = 9780415635158}}{{cite journal | last1 = Gray | first1 = Richard M. | last2 = Liotta | first2 = Richard F. | title = PTSD: Extinction, Reconsolidation, and the Visual-Kinesthetic Dissociation Protocol | journal = Traumatology | volume = 18 | issue = 2 | pages = 3–16 | publisher = Sage | location = | date = June 2012 | url = http://tmt.sagepub.com/content/18/2/3.full.pdf+html | doi = 10.1177/1534765611431835}} Reviewers Witkowski (2010) and Sturt et al (2012) agree that NLP lacks an evidence base but disagree on the invalidity of NLP: Witkowski—expressing the consensus scientific opinion—states, "My analysis leads undeniably to the statement that NLP represents pseudoscientific rubbish, which should be mothballed forever"; Sturt et al—in common with some NLP proponents—state that "[t]he study conclusion [of no effect] reflects the limited quantity and quality of NLP research, rather than robust evidence of no effect." Reviewing Sturt et al (2012) Murray (2013) affirms their conclusion and adds that "[c]ollectively, the academic research base yields nominal support for paying for NLP training or services."{{cite journal | last1 = Murray | first1 = Laura L. Murray | title = Limited evidence that neurolinguistic programming improves health-related outcomes. | journal = Evidence-Based Mental Health | publisher = BMJ Publishing Group | date = 30 May 2013 | url = http://ebmh.bmj.com/content/early/2013/05/29/eb-2013-101355.extract | doi =10.1136/eb-2013-101355}}

    Scientific criticism

    Neuro-linguistic programming has been characterized as a New Age{{cite web|author=Carroll RT |authorlink=Robert Todd Carroll |publisher=The Skeptic's Dictionary |url=http://skepdic.com/neurolin.html |title=neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) |accessdate=2009-06-25 |date= 2009-02-23}}{{cite journal|author=Beyerstein, B.L|year=1990|title= Brainscams: Neuromythologies of the New Age|journal=International Journal of Mental Health |volume=19|issue=3|pages= 27–36 (27)|url=http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1991-10658-001}} pseudoscience. Witkowski (2010) writes that "NLP represents pseudoscientific rubbish, which should be mothballed forever." The name Neuro-linguistic programming has also been criticised. Roderique-Davies (2009) states that "neuro" in NLP is "effectively fraudulent since NLP offers no explanation at a neuronal level and it could be argued that its use fallaciously feeds into the notion of scientific credibility." Witkowski (2010) also states that at the neuronal level NLP provides no explanation at all and has nothing in common with academic linguistics or programming. Similarly, experimental psychologist Corballis in his critique of lateralization of brain function (the left/right brain myth), states that "NLP is a thoroughly fake title, designed to give the impression of scientific respectability" and describes NLP as a "cult" activity with "little scientific credibility".{{cite book| editor1-last = Della Sala| editor1-first = Sergio| editor2-last = Anderson| editor2-first = Mike| last1 = Corballis | first1 = Michael C.| title = Neuroscience in Education:The good, the bad, and the ugly| chapter = Chapter 13 Educational double-think| quote = The notion of hemisphericity is also incorporated into such cult activities as Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP)...The notion of eye-movements as the key to mental actvity was something of a fad in the 1970s...This was largely discredited in an article that appeared the year before Bandler and Grinder's (1979) Frogs into Princes, one of the NLP manifestos (Ehrlichman & Weinberger, 1978). In any event, NLP is a movement that is still going strong, but has little scientific credibility.| edition = 1st| year = 2012| publisher = Oxford University Press| location = Oxford| isbn = 9780199600496| pages = 225–6 | url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=pFE5UCaFwEQC}} According to Psycholinguistics|psycholinguist Willem Levelt "[NLP] is not informed about the literature, it starts from insights that have been rendered out of date long ago, concepts are not apprehended or are a mere fabrication, conclusions are based upon wrong presumptions. NLP theory and practice have nothing to do with neuroscientific insights, nor with linguistics, nor with informatics and theory of programming."{{cite journal | last1 = Drenth | first1 = Pieter J.D | title = Growing anti-intellectualism in Europe; a menace to science | journal = Studia Psychologica | volume = 45 | issue = | pages = 5–13 | publisher = | location = | year = 2003 | url = http://www.allea.org/Pages/ALL/4/881.bGFuZz1FTkc.pdf | doi = }}{{cite journal | last1 = Levelt | first1 = Willem J.M | title = u voor neuro-linguistische programmering | journal = Skepter | volume = 9 | issue = 3 | pages = | publisher = Skepsis | location = | year = 1996 | language = Dutch | url = http://translate.google.com.au/translate?hl=en&sl=nl&u=http://www.skepsis.nl/nlp.html&prev=/search%3Fq%3Du%2Bvoor%2Bneuro-linguistische%2Bprogrammering%26safe%3Doff%26biw%3D1152%26bih%3D679 | doi = }}{{cite journal | last1 = Levelt | first1 = Willem J.M | title = u voor neuro-linguistische programmering | journal = Intermediair | volume = | issue = | pages = | publisher = | location = | date = 17 November 1995 | language = Dutch | url = http://www.intermediair.nl/ | doi = }}Neuroscience|Neuroscientists Sergio Della Sala and Barry Beyerstein wrote, "[NLP] began with some now outmoded information from legitimate psychology, linguistics and neuroscience that even most experts accepted back in the 1960s, when NLP first arrived on the scene. The nice thing about real science, as opposed to pseudoscience, is the former eventually corrects its mistakes as new discoveries emerge. NLP remains mired in the past or the never-was."{{cite book | last1 = Della Sala | first1 = Sergio | title = Tall Tales About the Mind and Brain: Separating Fact from Fiction | chapter = Introduction: The myth of 10% and other Tall Tales about the mind and brain | chapterurl = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=eftFztxKBAwC&lpg=PP1&pg=PR20#v=onepage&q&f=false | page = xx | publisher = Oxford University Press | edition = 1st | year = 2007 | location = Oxford | url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=eftFztxKBAwC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false | isbn = 9780198568766}} According to Beyerstein (1995) and Witkowski (2010), NLP jargon—such as pragmagraphics, metamodeling, metaprogramming, submodalities—is intended to impress, obfuscate and give the false impression that NLP is a scientific discipline. Beyerstein says, "though it claims neuroscience in its pedigree, NLP's outmoded view of the relationship between cognitive style and brain function ultimately boils down to crude analogies." Furthermore Beyerstein (1995) believed that NLP has helped popularize myths about the brain and neurology and that that the aphorism "you create your own reality" promotes an Epistemological relativism|epistemologically relativistic perspective, the purpose of which is to gain immunity from scientific testing. Reviewing various applications of brain lateralization mythology to education and psychotherapy, neuroscientist Lauren Julius Harris writes, "[t]he scientifically most pretentious of these [applications] is known as Neurolinguistic Programming".{{cite book| editor1-last = Molfese| editor1-first = Dennis L.| editor2-last = Segalowitz| editor2-first = Sidney J.| last1 = Harris | first1 = Lauren Julius| title = Brain Lateralization in Children: Developmental Implications | edition = 1st| year = 1988| publisher = Guilford Press| location = New York| isbn = 0898627192 | page = 214 | quote = "In fact, whole systems of psychotherapy have been developed on the basis of certain extrapolations from the laterality literature. The scientifically most pretentious of these is known as Neurolinguistic Programming, or NLP (Bandler & Grinder, 1979). NLP began in 1975 and has quickly achieved cult status." | chapter = Chapter 8 Right-Brain Training: Some Reflections on the Application of Research on Cerebral Hemispheric Specialization to Education| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=un-AIyRU328C}} Bradley and Biederman (1985){{cite journal | last1 = Bradley | first1 = Jane E. | last2 = Biedermann | first2 = Heinz-Joachim | title = Bandler and Grinder's neurolinguistic programming: Its historical context and contribution. | journal = Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training | volume = 22 | issue = 1 | pages = 59–62 | publisher = BMJ Publishing Group | year = 1985 | doi = 10.1037/h0088527 }} explain that the study of human communication is conventionally divided into Syntax|syntactics, semantics and pragmatics and that these subfields of linguistics are indivisible and interdependent. After Watzlawick, Bradley and Biederman argue that "[s]uperimposed on these three aspects of communication is the context in which the communication occurs" and that this context is vital to understanding communication. Bradley and Biederman argue that Bandler and Grinder focus on syntactics and semantics and disregard pragmatics and context which are "the most intricate and important aspects" of communication. Bradley and Biederman argue that to this extent Bandler and Grinder have produced a very superficial analysis of verbal and non-verbal communication. It is also argued that this major deficiency in NLP cannot be remediated "as long as Bandler & Grinder refuse to acknowledge the need for empirical research." Furthermore, "their theory is not clearly articulated; its terminology, premises, and assumptions are either specified in an ambiguous manner or not specified at all". Responding to Bandler and Grinder's maxim that they aren't interested in the "truth" but only in "what works", Bradley and Biederman state, "[i]t has yet to be empirically demonstrated that their [Bandler and Grinder] approach works". For example, a central supposition of NLP—that there exists a connection "between a client's distorted perceptions of the world and his/her distorted linguistic representations"—is undergirded only by faith and Intuition (psychology)|intuition. Bradley and Biederman highlight that on the one hand Bandler and Grinder posit that there is no veridical relationship between reality and perception (an idea drawn from the Phenomenology (philosophy)|phenomenology of Edmund Husserl|Husserl) yet on the other hand they offer only Anecdotal evidence|personal testimony—something which according to their own theoretical position is unreliable—in support of the accuracy of their theory.

    Tye (1994){{cite journal | last1 = Tye | first1 = Marcus J.C. | title = Neurolinguistic programming: Magic or myth? | journal = Journal of Accelerative Learning & Teaching | volume = 19 | issue = 3-4 | pages = 309–342 | year = 1994 | issn = 02732459 | id = 2003-01157-001 }} is concerned to reconcile the failure of empirical research to validate NLP and the Anecdotal evidence|anecdotes that NLP proponents present in defence of the efficacy of NLP. Tye draws a comparison between shamanism and NLP, describing what he terms a "psycho shaman effect". According to Tye, "[l]ike NLP techniques, the psycho shaman effect is a collection of already existing, well understood and accepted ideas. Specifically it has three components: cognitive dissonance, Placebo| placebo effect and therapist charisma". Tye thus attributes the apparent efficacy of NLP to nonspecific effects.

    Craft (2001){{cite journal | last1 = Craft | first1 = Anna | title = Neuro-linguistic Programming and learning theory | journal = The Curriculum Journal | publisher = Routledge | volume = 12 | issue = 1 | pages = 125–136 | year = 2001 | doi = 10.1080/09585170010017781 | issn = 09585176 | url = http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09585170122455?journalCode=rcjo20 }} considers NLP to be ostensibly based on social constructivism—and indeed several NLP proponents claim that it is so—and proceeds to evaluate Methods of neuro-linguistic programming#Modeling|NLP modeling in those terms. According to Craft, constructivist theories of learning conceive of an expert instructor and a novice in Cognitive apprenticeship|apprenticeship that gradually grows in "confidence, understanding and competence" via a process of dialogue that results in a Constructivism_(learning_theory)#Dynamic_interaction_between_task.2C_instructor_and_learner|negotiated shared experience and meaning. The notion of knowledge being created discursively is central to social constructivism yet absent in NLP modeling. Craft argues that NLP modeling contains no appreciation of the expert instructor (i.e. the person who is skilled in the activity of teaching itself) nor of the Constructivism (learning theory)|peculiarities of constructivist teaching and learning. For these reasons Craft is not convinced by the claims of NLP proponents; Craft doubts that "merely copying, without Constructivism_(learning_theory)#Dynamic_interaction_between_task.2C_instructor_and_learner|negotiation, can really lead to expert performance". Craft contends that the theory of situated cognition contradicts the assumptions of NLP modeling in that NLP modeling is in effect concerned with mimicry of expertise that is divorced from its actual ("real life") Constructivism_(learning_theory)#The_importance_of_context|context of performance. Observation of " ‘surface features' of another person's behaviour...[and even] deeper aspects of another person's performance, which may include beliefs, physiology, strategies, Methods of neuro-linguistic programming#Representational_systems|sub-modalities, etc" is insufficient to Enculturation|enculturate a novice into a specific domain of knowledge, argues Craft. Craft contends that NLP is dogmatic in its promotion of modeling as the most effective method of skill acquisition when there may be such things as learning styles. Lastly—and in common with Rowan (2008) but for different reasons(see Neuro-linguistic programming#Empirical validity|Empirical validity)—Craft argues that NLP is inconsistent with social constructivism. According to social constructivism reality is Constructivist_epistemology#Social_constructivism_in_sociology|socially constructed. One of the main NLP maxims—presuppositions in NLP jargon—is Map–territory relation|Korzybski's pronouncement that "The map is not the territory". To paraphrase Craft, according to social constructivism there is no "territory" as such, no reality "out there", so the map-territory distinction is meaningless within a Social constructivism|social constructivist epistemology.

    Devilly argues that the so-called power therapies—such as NLP—gain popularity because they are promoted, like other pseudoscience, using a set of social influence tactics. These include making extraordinary claims (e.g. a one-session cure for any trauma-related memory), creating a rationalization trap by obtaining incremental commitments from students learning the power therapy (e.g. first lesson is free and subsequent courses increase in price), manufacturing source credibility and sincerity by creating a guru-like leader that is most qualified in the power therapy, creating a self-regulated body composed of those that have completed a course in the power therapy, and defining an enemy to facilitate Ingroups and outgroups|in-group/out-group thinking and behaviour and to serve as a scapegoat.

    NLP has been criticized alongside theories and practices characterized as questionable, pseudoscience and/or discredited practices in therapy. Sources within therapy and psychology include books such as Crazy Therapies (1997), Science and Pseudo-science in Clinical Psychology (2002), and Tall Tales about the Mind and Brain (2007). Articles critical of NLP also appear in the Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience (2000) and The Skeptic's Dictionary (2003). NLP has also been used as a key example of pseudoscience to facilitate the understanding of the importance of rational and critical thinking in a number of academic subjects.

    According to Witkowski (2010), NLP also appears on "the list of discredited therapies" published in the Journal of Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. With reference to work by Carroll (2003), Della Sala (1999), Lilienfeld et al. (2003) and Singer and Lalich (1996) on "pseudoscientific, unvalidated, or "quack" psychotherapies" within clinical psychology, Norcross et al. (2006) included NLP for treatment of mental/behaviour disorders in a survey of the opinions of psychologists who rated NLP between possibly discredited and probably discredited, a rating similar to Animal-assisted_therapy#Dolphin_Therapy|dolphin assisted therapy, Hippotherapy|equine therapy, psychosynthesis, scared straight programs, and emotional freedom technique (EFT). Norcross et al. (2010) listed "neurolinguistic programming for drug and alcohol dependence" seventh out of their list of the ten most discredited drugs and alcohol interventions, and it is listed as "certainly discredited" for addiction treatment in Evidence-based practices in addiction treatment: review and recommendations for public policy.

    Neuro-Linguistic Programming as quasi-religion

    Sociology|Sociologists and Anthropology|anthropologists—amongst others—have categorised NLP as a quasi-religion belonging to the New Age and/or Human Potential Movements.{{cite book | title=Alternative Religions: A Sociological Introduction | publisher=Ashgate Publishing Ltd |location=Hampshire| last1=Hunt | first1 = Stephen J. | year=2003| isbn=0754634108| url=http://books.google.com.au/books/about/Alternative_Religions.html?id=0GuWbJhYIccC}}{{cite book | title=Sects, Cults and Alternative Religions: A World Survey and Sourcebook | publisher=Blandford Press | location = Singapore | last1 = Barrett | first1 = David V. | year=1998 | url = http://books.google.com.au/books/about/Sects_Cults_and_Alternative_Religions.html?id=WVSbJQAACAAJ}}{{cite book| last1 = Whiworth| first1 = Belinda| title = New Age Encyclopedia: A Mind, Body, Spirit Reference Guide| edition = 1st| year = 2003| publisher = New Page Books| location = New Jersey| isbn = 1564146405| url = http://books.google.com.au/books/about/New_Age_Encyclopedia.html?id=eTf5_APP9uAC}}{{cite book| editor1-last = Kemp| editor1-first = Daren| editor2-last = Lewis| editor2-first = James R.| title = Handbook of New Age| edition = 1st| year = 2007| publisher = Brill| location = Leiden| issn = 18746691| isbn = 9789004153554| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=Bm-7DH2bZ8QC}}{{cite book| editor1-last = Aupers| editor1-first = Stef| editor2-last = Houtman| editor2-first = Dick| title = Religions of Modernity: Relocating the Sacred to the Self and the Digital| edition = 1st| year = 2010| publisher = Brill| location = Leiden| issn = 15734293| isbn = 9789004184510| pages = 115–132| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=l85zsiTI28sC&pg=PA115}}{{cite book| editor1-last = Hammer| editor1-first = Olav| editor2-last = Rothstein| editor2-first = Mikael| title = The Cambridge Companion to New Religious Movements| edition = 1st| year = 2012| publisher = Cambridge University Press| location = Cambridge| isbn = 9780521145657| page = 247| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=XnD-fAPCb2UC&pg=PA247}}{{cite book| editor1-last = Cresswell| editor1-first = Jamie | editor2-last = Wilson| editor2-first = Bryan| title = New Religious Movements: Challenge and Response| edition = 1st| year = 1999| publisher = Routledge| location = London| isbn = 0415200490| page = 64| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=egbKOokRqB0C&pg=PA64}}{{cite book| last1 = Edwards| first1 = Linda| title = A Brief Guide to Beliefs: Ideas, Theologies, Mysteries, and Movements| edition = 1st| year = 2001| publisher = Westminster John Knox Press| location = Kentucky| isbn = 0664222595| page = 573|url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=edT9ZBiroCQC&pg=PA573}}{{cite book| last1 = Walker| first1 = James K.| title = The Concise Guide to Today's Religions and Spirituality| edition = 1st| year = 2007| publisher = Harvest House Pubslishers| location = Oregon| isbn = 9780736920117| page = 235|url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=AMUpn_AK8iQC&pg=PA235}}{{cite book| editor1-last = Clarke| editor1-first = Peter B.| title = Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements| edition = 1st| year = 2006| publisher = Routledge| location = London| isbn = 0203484339| pages = 440–1| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=Hq988pEebSAC}} Medical anthropology|Medical anthropologist Jean M. Langford categorises NLP as a form of folk magic; that is to say, a practice with Ritual|symbolic efficacy—as opposed to physical efficacy—that is able to effect change through nonspecific effects (e.g. placebo). To Langford, NLP is akin to a Syncretism|syncretic folk religion "that attempts to wed the magic of folk practice to the science of professional medicine".{{cite journal | last1 = Langford | first1 = Jean M. | title = Medical Mimesis: Healing Signs of a Cosmopolitan "Quack" | journal = American Ethnologist | publisher = Wiley | volume = 26 | issue = 1 | pages = 24–46 | month = February | year = 1999 | url = http://www.jstor.org/stable/647497}} Bandler and Grinder were (and continue to be{{cite book| last1 = Grinder| first1 = John| last2 = DeLozier| first2 = Judith| title = Turtles All The Way Down: Prerequisites To Personal Genius| edition = 1st| year = 1987| publisher = Grinder & Associates| location = California| isbn = 1555520227|url = http://books.google.com.au/books/about/Turtles_all_the_way_down.html?id=LQ8RAQAAIAAJ}}{{cite book | last=Grinder | first=John | last2=Bostic St. Clair| title=Whispering In The Wind |year=2001 | publisher=J & C Enterprises | isbn=0971722307 | chapter = Chapter 3: The New Code | page = 174 | quote=Triple Description also owes much to Castaneda's definition of a warrior as a person who collects multiple descriptions of the world (without any movement to resolve the question of which of these descriptions represents reality).}}) influenced by the shamanism described in the books of Carlos Castaneda. Several ideas and techniques have been borrowed from Castaneda and incorporated into NLP including so-called double induction and the notion of "stopping the world"{{cite book| last1 = Grimley| first1 = Bruce| title = Theory and Practice of NLP Coaching: A Psychological Approach| edition = 1st| year = 2013| publisher = Sage Publications Ltd| location = London| isbn = 9781446201725| page = 31| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=ncPP-6AGIJkC&pg=PA31}} which is central to NLP modeling. Tye (1994) characterises NLP as a type of "psycho shamanism". Lionel Fanthorpe|Fanthorpe and Fanthorpe (2008){{cite book| last1 = Fanthorpe| first1 = Lionel| last2 = Fanthorpe| first2 = Patricia| title = Mysteries and Secrets of Voodoo, Santeria, and Obeah| edition = 1st| year = 2008| publisher = New Page Books| location = New Jersey| isbn = 9781550027846| page = 112| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=c2xkzYS1z_AC&pg=PA112}} see a similarity between the Mimesis|mimetic procedure and intent of NLP modeling and aspects of ritual in some Syncretism|syncretic religions. Stephen J. Hunt|Hunt (2003) draws a comparison between the concern with lineage from an NLP guru—which is evident amongst some NLP proponents—and the concern with guru lineage in some Eastern religions.

    In Aupers and Houtman (2010) Bovbjerg identifies NLP as a New Age "psycho-religion" and uses NLP as a case-study to demonstrate the thesis that the New Age psycho-religions such as NLP are predicated on an instrinsically religious idea, namely concern with a transcendent "other". In the world's monotheistic faiths, argues Bovbjerg, the purpose of religious practice is communion and fellowship with a transcendent ‘other', i.e. a God. With the New Age psycho-religions, argues Bovbjerg, this orientation towards a transcendent ‘other' persists but the other has become “the other in our selves”, the so-called unconscious: "[t]he individual's inner life becomes the intangible focus of [psycho-]religious practices and the subconscious becomes a constituent part of modern individuals' understanding of the Self." Bovbjerg adds, "[c]ourses in personal development would make no sense without an unconscious that contains hidden resources and hidden knowledge of the self." Thus psycho-religious practice revolves around ideas of the conscious and unconscious self and communicating with and accessing the hidden resources of the unconscious self—the transcendent other. According to Bovbjerg the notion that we have an unconscious self underlies many NLP techniques either explicitly or implicitly. Bovbjerg argues, "[t]hrough particular practices, the [NLP practitioner qua] psycho-religious practitioner expects to achieve self-perfection in a never-ending transformation of the self."

    Bovbjerg's secular critique of NLP is echoed in the conservative Christian perspective of the New Age as represented by David Jeremiah|Jeremiah (1995){{cite book| last1 = Jeremiah| first1 = David| title = Invasion of Other Gods: The Seduction of New Age Spirituality| edition = 1st| year = 1995| publisher = W Publishing Group| location = | isbn = 0849939879| chapter = Chapter 9 Corporate Takeovers|url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=ak6a3Ye53OYC}} who argues that, "[t]he 'transformation' recommended by the founders and leaders of these business seminars [such as NLP] has spiritual implications that a non-Christian or new believer may not recognise. The belief that human beings can change themselves by calling upon the power (or god) within or their own infinite human potential is a contradiction of the Christian view. The Bible says man is a sinner and is saved by God's grace alone."

    The quasi-religiosity of New Age belief and practice—even to the extent of "self-improvement" technique—was affirmed in a series of US court cases brought by employees against their employers whom mandated corporate New Age training. The plaintiffs claimed that these trainings conflicted with their religious beliefs.{{cite news | last = Buchanan | first = Julie M. | title = New Age-type training can trigger lawsuits | newspaper = The Milwaukee Sentinel | location = Milwaukee | page = 16 | date = 13 September 1993 | url = http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=g5hQAAAAIBAJ&sjid=ABMEAAAAIBAJ&pg=5266%2C3748228 | accessdate = 7 August 2013}}{{cite news | last = Lindsey | first = Robert | title = GURUS HIRED TO MOTIVATE WORKERS ARE RAISING FEARS OF 'MIND CONTROL' | newspaper = The New York Times | location = New York | date = 17 April 1987 | url = http://www.nytimes.com/1987/04/17/us/gurus-hired-to-motivate-workers-are-raising-fears-of-mind-control.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm | accessdate = 7 August 2013}} On this subject, Young—in Heuberger and Nash (1994){{cite book| editor1-last = Heuberger| editor1-first = Frank W| editor2-last = Nash| editor2-first = Laura L.| title = A Fatal Embrace?: Assessing Holistic Trends in Human Resources Programs| edition = 1st| year = 1994| publisher = Transaction Publishers| location = New Jersey| isbn = 1560001232| pages = 22–4| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=mi3KBzx5r1gC&pg=PA22}}—specifies, "[s]uch New Age methods include meditation, yoga, biofeedback, centering, guided visualizations, affirmations, Akido-based exercise [sic], self-hypnosis, fire walking, and Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)".

    Intellectual property disputes

    By the end of 1980, the collaboration between Bandler and Grinder ended. On 25 September 1981, Bandler instituted a civil action against Grinder and his company, seeking injunctive relief and damages for Grinder's commercial activity in relation to NLP. On 29 October 1981, judgement was made in favor of Bandler.{{cite court|litigants = Not Ltd v. Unlimited Ltd et al (Super. Ct. Santa Cruz County, 1981, No. 78482) |vol =|reporter =|opinion = |pinpoint = |court = Super. Ct. Santa Cruz County |date = 29 October 1981 |url= http://63.197.255.150/openaccesspublic/civil/casereport.asp?casenumber=CV078482&courtcode=A&casetype=CIS}} As part of a settlement agreement Bandler granted to Grinder a limited 10-year license to conduct NLP seminars, offer certification in NLP and use the NLP name on the condition that royalties from the earnings of the seminars be paid to Bandler. In July 1996 and January 1997, Bandler instituted a further two civil actions against Grinder and his company, numerous other prominent figures in NLP and 200 further initially unnamed persons. Bandler alleged that Grinder had violated the terms of the settlement agreement reached in the initial case and had suffered commercial damage as a result of the allegedly illegal commercial activities of the defendants. Bandler sought from each defendant damages no less than US$10,000,000.00.{{cite web| title = Text of Bandler Lawsuit| url = http://www.chris-nlp-hall.com/galleries/docs/Summary%20of%20Legal%20Proceedings.pdf | date = | accessdate = 12 June 2013}}{{cite web | title = Summary of the Legal Proceedings January 1997-June 23, 2003| url = http://www.steverrobbins.com/nlpschedule/random/lawsuit-text.html | date = | accessdate = 12 June 2013}} In February 2000, the Court found against Bandler, stating that "Bandler has misrepresented to the public, through his licensing agreement and promotional materials, that he is the exclusive owner of all intellectual property rights associated with NLP, and maintains the exclusive authority to determine membership in and certification in the Society of NLP."{{cite court |litigants = Richard W Bandler et al v. Quantum Leap Inc. et al (Super. Ct. Santa Cruz County, 2000, No. 132495) |vol = |reporter = |opinion = |pinpoint = |court = Super. Ct. Santa Cruz County |date = 10 February 2000 |url= http://63.197.255.150/openaccesspublic/civil/casereport.asp?casenumber=CV132495&courtcode=A&casetype=CIS}}{{cite web | title = NLP Matters | url = http://web.archive.org/web/20010210021504/http://www.anlp.org/anlpnews2.htm | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20010210021504/http://www.anlp.org/anlpnews2.htm | archivedate = 10 February 2001 | accessdate = 12 June 2013}}On this matter Stollznow (2010) comments, "[i]ronically, Bandler and Grinder feuded in the 1980s over trademark and theory disputes. Tellingly, none of their myriad of NLP models, pillars, and principles helped these founders to resolve their personal and professional conflicts."

    In December 1997, Tony Clarkson instituted civil proceedings against Bandler to have Bandler's UK trademark of NLP revoked. The Court found in favor of Clarkson; Bandler's trademark was subsequently revoked.{{cite web | title = NLP Matters | url = http://web.archive.org/web/20010406091232/www.anlp.org/anlpnews.htm | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20010406091232/www.anlp.org/anlpnews.htm | archivedate = 6 April 2001 | accessdate = 12 June 2013}}{{cite web | title = Case details for trade mark UK00002067188 | url = http://www.ipo.gov.uk/tmcase/Results/1/UK00002067188 | date = 13 June 2013 | accessdate = 110 July 1996 }}By the end of 2000, Bandler and Grinder entered a release where they agreed, amongst other things, that "they are the co-creators and co-founders of the technology of Neuro-linguistic Programming" and "mutually agree to refrain from disparaging each other's efforts, in any fashion, concerning their respective involvement in the field of NeuroLinguistic Programming." {{cite book | last=Grinder | first=John | last2=Bostic St. Clair| title=Whispering In The Wind | year=2001 | publisher=J & C Enterprises | isbn=0971722307 | chapter=Appendix A }}As a consequence of these disputes and settlements, the names NLP and Neuro-linguistic Programming are not owned by any party and there is no restriction on any party offering NLP certification.{{cite web | last =Hall | first = L.Michael | title = THE LAWSUIT THAT ALMOST KILLED NLP | url = http://www.neurosemantics.com/nlp/the-history-of-nlp/the-lawsuit-that-almost-killed-nlp | date = September 20, 2010| accessdate = 12 June 2013}}{{cite web | last = | first = | title = NLP Archives - Frequently Asked Questions about NLP | url = http://users.telenet.be/merlevede/nlpfaq35.htm | date = | accessdate = 12 June 2013}}{{cite web | last = | first = | title = NLP Archives - Frequently Asked Questions about NLP | url = http://users.telenet.be/merlevede/lawsuit.htm | date = | accessdate = 12 June 2013}}{{cite web | title = Trademark Status and Document Retrieval | url = http://tsdr.uspto.gov/#caseNumber=75351747&caseType=SERIAL_NO&searchType=statusSearch | date = 13 June 2013 | accessdate = 14 June 2013}}{{cite web | title = Trademark Status and Document Retrieval | url = http://tsdr.uspto.gov/#caseNumber=73253122&caseType=SERIAL_NO&searchType=statusSearch | date = 13 June 2013 | accessdate = 14 June 2013}}

    Associations, certification, and practitioner standards

    The names NLP and Neuro-linguistic Programming are not owned by any person or organisation, they are not trademarked intellectual property{{cite web | title = NLP FAQ | url = http://users.telenet.be/merlevede/nlpfaq35.htm | date = 27 July 2001 | accessdate = 14 June 2013}}{{cite web | title = NLP Comprehensive Lawsuit Response | url = http://www.steverrobbins.com/nlpschedule/random/lawsuit-nlpc.html | date = | accessdate = 14 June 2013}} and there is no central regulating authority for NLP instruction and certification.{{cite web | title = Trademark Status and Document Retrieval | url = http://tsdr.uspto.gov/#caseNumber=75351747&caseType=SERIAL_NO&searchType=statusSearch | date = 13 June 2013 | accessdate = 14 June 2013}} There is no restriction on who can describe themselves as an NLP Master Practitioner or NLP Master Trainer and there are a multitude of certifying associations; this has led Devilly (2005) to describe such training and certifying associations as granfalloons, i.e. proud and meaningless associations of human beings.

    There is great variation in the depth and breadth of training and standards of practitioners, and some disagreement between those in the field about which patterns are, or are not, actual NLP.Irish National Center for Guidance in Education's "Guidance Counsellor's Handbook NLP is an open field of training with no "official" best practice. With different authors, individual trainers and practitioners having developed their own methods, concepts and labels, often branding them as NLP, the training standards and quality differ greatly.{{cite book| last1 = Moxom| first1 = Karen| title = The NLP Professional: Create a More Professional, Effective and Successful NLP Business | edition = 1st| year = 2011| publisher = Ecademy Press| location = Herts| isbn = 9781907722554| pages = 46–50 | chapter = Three: Demonstrating Best Practice| url = http://books.google.com.au/books?id=7KEYurmAA8sC}} In 2009, a British television presenter was able to register his pet cat as a member of the British Board of Neuro Linguistic Programming (BBNLP), which subsequently claimed that it existed only to provide benefits to its members and not to certify credentials.{{cite news | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8303126.stm | title=Cat registered as hypnotherapist | publisher=BBC | date=October 12, 2009 | accessdate=November 6, 2009}}
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