As published in what is wellness* the dimensions of wellness may include Mental health|mental, physical, Spirituality|spiritual, social, Occupational health psychology|occupational and Environmental health|environmental health conditions; with wellness being the result of personal initiative, seeking a more optimal, Holistic Health|holistic and balanced state of health and well-being across multiple dimensions.
The phrase can also be seen as an analogue to the medical term "homeostasis".
Wellness can also be described as "the constant, conscious pursuit of living life to its fullest potential."
Halbert L. Dunn| Halbert L. Dunn, M.D., began using the phrase high level wellness in the 1950s, based on a series of lectures at a Unitarian Universalist Church in Arlington, Virginia, in the United States. Dunn (196, p. 4) defined wellness as "an integrated method of functioning which is oriented toward maximizing the potential of which the individual is capable. It requires that the individual maintain a continuum of balance and purposeful direction within the environment where he is functioning." He also stated that "wellness is a direction in progress toward an ever-higher potential of functioning" (p. 6).
Alternative approaches to wellness are often denoted by the use of two different phrases: health and wellness, and wellness programs. These kinds of wellness programs offer alternative medicine techniques to improve wellness. Whether these techniques actually improve physical health is controversial and a subject of much debate. James Randi and the James Randi Educational Foundation are outspoken critics of this alternative new age concept of wellness. The behaviors in the pursuit of wellness often include many health related practices, such as making healthy lifestyle changes and utilizing natural therapies.
Wellness, as a luxury pursuit, is found obviously in the more affluent societies because it involves managing the body state after the basic needs of food, shelter and basic medical care have already been met. Many of the practices applied in the pursuit of wellness, in fact, are aimed at controlling the side effects of affluence, such as obesity and inactivity. Wellness grew as a popular concept starting in the 19th century, just as the middle class began emerging in the industrialized world, and a time when a newly prosperous public had the time and the resources to pursue wellness and other forms of self-improvement.
DeterminantsAchieving or maintaining wellness could be determined by individual awareness and ability to measure states of health including mental health, physical activity, nutritional intake, fiscal responsibility, Productivity (linguistics)|productivity, as well as Emergency Preparedness|emergency preparedness and avoiding common pitfalls. Wellness can also be described as a state that combines health and happiness. Thus, those factors that contribute to being healthy and happy will also likely contribute to being well. Factors that contribute to health and happiness have long been recognized, at least since the time of Ancient Greeks. To achieve a state of wellness, one has to work on its determinants. The determinants of wellness are often considered to be: awareness and the initiative to improve one's state of physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, environmental, social and/or occupational health.
ProgramsWellness programs vary depending on the target market and who is promoting them. Wellness programs are most commonly promoted in progressive companies and schools along with personal wellness programs marketed directly to health seeking individuals. Wellness programs attempt to facilitate life improvements though recommending positive lifestyle changes. Wellness programs are often pursued by people seeking recovery from an illness or specific health condition or by those interested in improving their overall health.
Supporters of wellness programs may claim there are many factors that contribute to wellness: living in a clean environment, eating healthy food, regular physical exercise, balance in career; family; and Interpersonal relationship|relationships, spiritual awareness and some programs include faith-based worship. Faith-based wellness programs may suggest a spiritual component in their models, however, it would be opposition to most secular wellness programs which tend to be inclusive any individual's spiritual beliefs or practices.
Some well known wellness promoters are Deepak Chopra, Michael Roizen, Mehmet Oz, Don B. Ardell, John Travis (physician)|John Travis, David F. Duncan, and Andrew Weil.
Secular-based programsThe aging population participates in wellness programs in order to feel better and have more energy. Wellness programs allow individuals to take increased responsibility for their health behaviors. People often enroll in a private wellness program to improve Physical fitness|fitness, Smoking cessation|stop smoking, or to learn how to manage their weight.
Workplace wellness programs are recognized by more and more companies for their value in improving health and well-being of their employees. They are part of a company's health and safety program. These wellness programs are designed to improve employee morale, loyalty, and productivity. They could consist of as little as a gym full of exercise equipment that is available to their employees on company property during the workday. But they may also cover smoking cessation programs, nutrition; Weight loss|weight; or stress management training, nature and outdoors activities, health risk assessments, and health screenings.
Faith-based programsReligious organizations often provide food, shelter, clothing, childcare and senior services in the community. Faith-based wellness ministries are simply wellness programs sponsored by the faith-based community, which are similar to those offered by others, but generally also focus on the spiritual, New Age and religious aspects of wellness from the perspective of a particular faith. Here, wellness is viewed as a quest for spiritual Terms and concepts in alternative medicine#Wholeness|wholeness. Robert H. Schuller's be happy Beatitudes, for example, expounds upon the New Testament and presents eight positive principles for fulfillment. New Age guru Deepak Chopra, author of more than 40 books on spirituality and health, offers an alternative and New Age spirituality perspective to wellness.
There are many charitable services provided by religious organizations that do NOT qualify as faith-based, because they make no religious requirements of the recipients. For example, Roman Catholic food kitchens typically are open to all regardless of creed. This is in contrast to the drug addiction programs of the Nation of Islam, as described in the Autobiography of Malcolm X, where the addict is exhorted to appeal to Allah for help. Alcoholics Anonymous has the form of a faith based program but most of its chapters leave the interpretation of 'higher power' to the individual.
Faith-based wellness also includes specific diets, such as Dr. George Malkmus' Bible-based Hallelujah acres|Hallelujah Diet and others.*